Producers and land managers are experiencing firsthand the impacts of climate change, which is caused by the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. With support from NRCS, farmers, ranchers and forest landowners across the nation’s working lands can contribute to climate solutions.
While NRCS offers a broad suite of voluntary conservation activities, the agency identifies a sub-set as critical to climate change mitigation. When applied appropriately, these activities may deliver quantifiable reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and/or increases in carbon sequestration. Many offer co-benefits and ancillary benefits that help operations build climate change resilience while addressing other natural resource concerns such as soil health, water quality, pollinator and wildlife habitat and air quality.
Climate-Smart Agriculture and Forestry (CSAF) Mitigation Activities List
See the full list of mitigation activities, including practices available through EQIP and enhancements available through CSP.
NRCS climate-smart agriculture and forestry mitigation activities are divided into mitigation categories. These mitigation categories are:
- Soil Health – Reducing emissions and enhancing soil carbon sequestration.
- Nitrogen Management – Implementing the 4Rs of nitrogen management and reducing nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas. The 4Rs are Right Source, Right Rate, Right Time and Right Place.
- Livestock Partnership – Reducing potent methane emissions from manure.
- Grazing and Pasture – Reducing emissions and building soil carbon stocks in grazing systems.
- Agroforestry, Forestry and Upland Wildlife Habitat – Building carbon stocks in perennial biomass and soils.
- Restoration of Disturbed Lands – Improving the quality of previously mined or degraded lands to increase soil and perennial biomass carbon stocks.
- Energy, Combustion and Electricity Efficiency – Reducing emissions from agricultural operations and infrastructure through energy and fuel efficiency and system and operational improvements.
- Wetlands - Returning a wetland and its functions to a close approximation of its original condition as it existed prior to disturbance on a former or degraded wetland site.
- Rice – Reducing methane emissions from rice fields by minimizing methane production during the growing season.
Brief descriptions on individual climate-smart conservation activities are outlined below. New activities will be added as science, innovation and quantification methodologies advance.
Producers interested in applying new climate-smart activities across their operations may be eligible for financial support through the NRCS conservation programs, including the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) and the Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP), as well as the Regional Conservation Partnership Program, a partner-driven program that leverages partner resources to advance innovative projects that address issues such as climate change. Additional opportunities to apply these activities may also be available via partners through the Partnerships for Climate-Smart Commodities opportunity that will provide technical and financial assistance to producers to implement climate-smart production practices on a voluntary basis on working lands.
NRCS is continually evaluating and updating our climate-smart mitigation activities to ensure the latest science and quantifiable benefits are reflected. This may include the temporary addition of prioritized activities that will be available as they undergo further evaluation. The list will continue to be updated to reflect the latest science and any practice modifications.
Producers interested in managing for soil health are encouraged to minimize soil disturbance while maximizing soil cover, biodiversity and the presence of living roots. Together, these principles reduce emissions to the atmosphere, increase carbon sequestration and have the co-benefit of reducing soil erosion, improving water infiltration, increasing nutrient cycling, decreasing money spent on inputs like fertilizer, building more resilient soils over time and serving as a climate solution.
NRCS offers a suite of climate-smart conservation practices within the Soil Health mitigation category, including but not limited to:
Conservation cover is a permanent vegetative cover. Plants that produce high volumes of organic matter are recommended when this practice is applied to increase carbon sequestration and build soil health. Producers who plant conservation cover may generate co-benefits including improved water quality and strengthened benefits to wildlife or pollinator habitat.
Conservation Crop Rotation
Conservation crop rotation is growing crops in a planned sequence on the same field over time. Producers who rotate crops may increase carbon sequestration while delivering the co-benefits of building soil health, reducing plant pest pressures, providing feed or forage for livestock and improving water quality.
Residue and Tillage Management, No-Till
No-till limits soil disturbance to manage the amount, orientation and distribution of crop and plant residue on the soil surface. Producers who practice no-till maintain crop residue throughout the year and plant directly into it. No-till may increase soil carbon sequestration while reducing emissions from the field and delivering the co-benefits of reducing fossil fuel use, increasing plant-available moisture and improving water quality. No-till reduces the amount of soil carbon released into the atmosphere when compared to soil disturbance practices, while also reducing emissions and sequestering carbon.
Residue and Tillage Management, Reduced Till
Like no-till, reduced till minimizes soil disturbance to manage the amount, orientation and distribution of crop and plant residue on the soil surface throughout the year. This practice limits soil-disturbing activities used to grow and harvest crops in systems where the field surface is tilled prior to planting. Producers who practice reduced till may slowly build soil carbon stocks while delivering the co-benefits of increasing plant-available moisture and improving water quality. Reduced till decreases the amount of soil carbon released into the atmosphere through disturbance and supports soil carbon sequestration.
Contour Buffer Strips
Contour buffer strips are narrow strips of permanent, herbaceous vegetative cover established around the hill slope on sloping cropland. These strips are alternated down the slope with wider cropped strips, farmed on the contour. Producers who apply contour buffer strips may increase carbon sequestration through perennial biomass plantings while delivering the co-benefits of reduced erosion, enhanced soil health, improved water quality and water infiltration.
Cover crops are grasses, legumes and forbs planted for seasonal vegetative cover. Cover crops are not cash crops, but instead are planted to build soil health and carbon stocks by reducing erosion, incrementally increasing organic matter and building soil structure while reducing soil compaction. Producers who plant cover crops may also deliver co-benefits of improved water quality, suppressed weed pressure and broken pest cycles.
A field border is a strip of permanent vegetation established at the edge or around the perimeter of a cropland or pasture field. Producers who implement field borders may build perennial biomass and soil carbon stocks while delivering the co-benefits of improving water quality and providing habitat for wildlife or pollinators.
Filter strips are areas of herbaceous vegetation that remove contaminants from overland flow. Filter strips are generally established where environmentally sensitive areas need to be protected from nutrient, sediment, other suspended solids and other dissolved contaminants in runoff. Producers who implement filter strips may increase soil carbon and sequester carbon in perennial biomass while preventing nitrogen from entering water bodies. This may provide the co-benefits of improving water quality while also reducing indirect emissions of nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas.
Grassed waterways are shaped channels planted to grass or other suitable vegetation to reduce the speed of water runoff. Producers who plant grassed waterways may build soil carbon, increase perennial biomass carbon and deliver the co-benefits of reducing flooding, improving water quality and protecting vulnerable soils.
Mulching is applying plant residues or other materials to the land’s surface. Producers who mulch may increase soil carbon sequestration while delivering co-benefits such as improving moisture management, limiting erosion, building soil health and increasing plant health.
Stripcropping is growing planned rotations of erosion-resistant and erosion-susceptible crops or fallow in a systematic arrangement of strips across a cropland field. Producers who plant stripcrops, and in particular the addition of perennial cover grown in strips with annual crops, may increase soil carbon sequestration while delivering the co-benefits of building soil health, reducing soil erosion, improving water quality and increasing plant productivity and health.
Vegetative barriers are permanent strips of stiff, dense vegetation established along the general contour of slopes or across concentrated flow areas. Producers who plant vegetative barriers may increase carbon sequestration in perennial biomass and soil carbon while delivering the co-benefits of improved soil health, reduced erosion, improved water quality and increased pollinator habitat.
Herbaceous Wind Barriers
Herbaceous wind barriers are areas of herbaceous vegetation established in narrow strips within a cropland field to reduce wind speed and wind erosion. Producers who plant herbaceous wind barriers may increase carbon sequestration in perennial biomass and soil carbon while delivering the co-benefits of building soil health, reducing erosion, improving ambient air quality and strengthening plant health by reducing crop damage by wind.
While nitrogen fertilizer supports healthy plant growth, excess nitrogen may be converted into nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas. NRCS’s nutrient management conservation practice may provide climate-smart benefits from implementing the 4Rs of nitrogen management – Right Source, Right Rate, Right Time and Right Place.
Nutrient management enables producers to manage the rate, source, placement and timing of plant nutrients and soil amendments while reducing environmental impact. This conservation practice, and particularly applications that improve nitrogen use efficiency, such as use of enhanced efficiency fertilizers, split applications, reduced application rates, and precision agriculture, may reduce nitrous oxide emissions while delivering the co-benefits of strengthening plant health and productivity, improving water quality, lowering input costs and improving or maintaining soil organic matter.
NRCS works with livestock producers to reduce methane emissions and support climate change mitigation related to livestock waste management.
An anaerobic digester is a component of a waste management system where biological treatment breaks down animal manure and other organic materials in the absence of oxygen. Through the manure decomposition process, methane is generated and captured for combustion in an engine or via a flare. Anaerobic digesters may be used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while delivering the co-benefits of managing odors, reducing pathogens and generating electricity for consumption on-site or sale into the electricity market.
Waste Separation Facility
A waste separation facility is a filtration or screening device, settling tank, settling basin or settling channel used to partition solids or nutrients from a waste stream. Producers may use a waste separation facility to strengthen manure handling methods, including in support of anaerobic digesters. This practice may reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provide the co-benefit of reducing odors.
Grazing and Pasture
Producers who implement conservation practices for managing grazing on pasture and range lands may improve livestock forage while sequestering carbon in perennial biomass and soils.
NRCS offers a suite of climate-smart conservation practices that support managed grazing on pasture and range lands.
Pasture and Hay Planting
Pasture and hay planting is used to establish adapted and compatible herbaceous plants suitable for pasture or hay production. Producers who participate in pasture and hay planting may increase perennial biomass and soil carbon sequestration while delivering the co-benefits of improving livestock nutrition and health, providing available forage during periods of otherwise low production and building soil health.
Prescribed grazing is managing the harvest of vegetation with grazing or browsing animals to achieve specific ecological, economic and management goals. Producers who practice prescribed grazing may sequester carbon in perennial biomass and soils while delivering the co-benefits of enhancing or maintaining desired plant species for forage, improving water quality, increasing stocking rates and livestock vigor and building soil health.
Range planting is the establishment of adapted perennial vegetation on range land. Producers who participate in range planting may increase carbon sequestration in perennial biomass and soils while delivering the co-benefits of supporting desired plant communities, providing or improving livestock forage, improving water quality and building soil health.
Agroforestry, Forestry and Upland Wildlife Habitat
Producers who implement conservation practices for agroforestry, forestry and upland wildlife habitat may sequester carbon in perennial biomass and soils while establishing trees and perennial biomass. These practices may improve forest and tree health, support wildlife, reduce erosion and sequester carbon to support climate change mitigation.
NRCS offers a suite of climate-smart conservation practices that support agroforestry, forestry and upland wildlife habitat.
Alley cropping is planting trees or shrubs in sets of rows with crops or forages produced between the woody plants. Producers who practice alley cropping may increase carbon sequestration in perennial biomass and soils while delivering the co-benefits of improving crop or forage quality, reducing wind and water erosion, improving water quality and building soil health.
Critical Area Planting
Critical area planting is establishing permanent vegetation on sites that have, or are expected to have, high erosion rates, and on sites that have physical, chemical, or biological conditions that prevent the establishment of vegetation with normal practices. Producers who practice critical area planting may increase soil carbon sequestration in perennial biomass and soils while delivering the co-benefits of reducing soil erosion, building soil health, providing wildlife habitat, and increasing plant productivity and health.
Forest farming is managing an overstory of trees or shrubs with understory plants that are separately managed for a variety of products. Producers who practice forest farming may deliver co-benefits of improving biodiversity and building soil health.
Windbreak and Shelterbelt Establishment and Renovation
This practice establishes, enhances or renovates windbreaks, which are single or multiple rows of trees or shrubs planted in linear or curvilinear configurations. Producers who establish windbreaks may increase carbon sequestration in perennial biomass and soils while delivering the co-benefits of reducing erosion, protecting crops, livestock and buildings from wind-related damage, enhancing moisture management and improving ambient air quality.
Silvopasture is the establishment and management of desired tree and forage species on the same land unit. Producers who practice silvopasture may increase carbon sequestration in perennial biomass and soils while delivering the co-benefits of providing forage, shade or shelter for livestock, reducing soil and wind erosion, improving water quality, increasing wildlife and pollinator habitat and building soil health.
Riparian Herbaceous Cover
Riparian herbaceous cover consists of grasses, sedges, rushes, ferns, legumes or forbs that are tolerant of intermittent flooding or saturated soils and established as the dominant vegetation between upland and aquatic habitats. Land managers who establish riparian herbaceous cover may increase carbon sequestration in perennial biomass and soils while delivering the co-benefits of enhancing wildlife or pollinator habitat, improving water quality, reducing streambank erosion and establishing desired plant communities.
Riparian Forest Buffer
A riparian forest buffer is an area covered by trees or shrubs that is located near, and generally uphill from, a body of water. Land managers who implement riparian forest buffers may generate carbon sequestration in perennial biomass and soils while generating the co-benefits of improving water quality, restoring diversity of riparian plant communities, providing wildlife habitat and improving stream conditions for certain species.
Wildlife Habitat Planting
Wildlife habitat planting is establishing wildlife habitat by planting herbaceous vegetation or shrubs.
A hedgerow planting is dense vegetation established in a linear design. Producers who implement hedgerow plantings may generate carbon sequestration in perennial biomass and soils while delivering the co-benefits of providing wildlife or pollinator habitat and developing living fences.
Tree and Shrub Establishment
This conservation practice establishes woody vegetation by planting seedlings or cuttings, direct seeding or through natural regeneration. Land managers who establish trees or shrubs may increase carbon sequestration in perennial biomass and soils while delivering the co-benefits of maintaining or increasing plant diversity, establishing wildlife or pollinator habitat, reducing erosion and improving water quality.
Upland Wildlife Habitat Management
This practice supports land managers in establishing and maintaining upland habitats and connectivity within the landscape for wildlife. Examples include creating food plots and planting warm or cool season grasses or legumes, forbs, trees or other woody vegetation depending on the target wildlife species. Landowners who manage for upland wildlife habitat may increase carbon sequestration in perennial biomass and soils while generating the co-benefits of improving wildlife and plant species diversity, increasing wildlife and pollinator habitat and improving water quality.
Forest Stand Improvement
Forest stand improvement is the manipulation of tree and shrub species composition, structure, or density to achieve desired forest conditions.
Restoration of Disturbed Lands
Producers and landowners may work with NRCS to implement conservation practices that restore previously disturbed lands. Possible benefits may include carbon sequestration in perennial biomass and soils while generating co-benefits of reduced erosion, improved water quality and restored habitat. NRCS offers a suite of climate-smart conservation practices that support these restoration efforts.
Land Reclamation, Landslide Treatment
The landslide treatment conservation practice is used to stabilize or manage natural materials, mine waste or overburden to reduce downslope movement. Producers and land managers who practice landslide treatment may increase perennial biomass and soil carbon sequestration on these degraded lands through the establishment of permanent trees, shrubs and grasses. Potential co-benefits include reducing erosion, improving water quality and generally improving land utility.
Land Reclamation, Abandoned Mined Land
The abandoned mined land conservation practice is used to reclaim land and water areas adversely affected by past mining activities. Producers and land managers who reclaim abandoned mined land may increase carbon sequestration in perennial biomass and soils through the establishment of permanent trees, shrubs and grasses. Potential co-benefits include reducing erosion, improving water quality and providing additional utility to these degraded lands.
In 2021, the criteria for Land Reclamation, Currently Mined Land were added to the criteria for Land Reclamation, Abandoned Mined Land. Land Reclamation, Currently Mined Land will remain available as a standalone practice in 2022 during this transition.
Energy, Combustion, and Electricity Efficiency
Producers may work with NRCS to implement conservation practices that can reduce emissions through improved energy or fuel efficiency and use within their agricultural systems, infrastructure, or operations. These practices may also improve ambient air quality and lower input costs.
Combustion System Improvement
Combustion system improvement is used to replace, repower, or retrofit an agricultural combustion system and related components or devices. Producers who implement combustion system improvement may reduce carbon dioxide emissions through improved fuel efficiency while delivering the co-benefits of improving ambient air quality and lowering input costs.
Energy Efficient Agricultural Operation
An energy efficient agricultural operation includes the onfarm facilities, equipment, and management strategies that provide increased energy efficiency.
Energy Efficient Building Envelope
An energy efficient building envelope is a boundary between a conditioned space and an unconditioned space that meets or exceeds best practices for energy efficiency.
Energy Efficient Lighting System
An energy efficient lighting system is an agricultural lighting system with increased energy efficiency.
Wetland restoration is the return of a wetland and its functions to a close approximation of its original condition as it existed prior to disturbance on a former or degraded wetland site.
Rice producers may work with NRCS to conserve valuable water resources while delivering climate benefits through conservation efforts that promote water management on rice fields.
Irrigation Water Management
This conservation practice is the process of determining and controlling the volume, frequency and application rate of irrigation water. On rice fields, specific applications of irrigation water management, such as the Conservation Stewardship Program enhancement Alternated Wetting and Drying, may reduce methane emissions to the atmosphere while delivering the co-benefits of improving water-use efficiency, reducing soil erosion and improving plant productivity and plant health.
Additional Resources: Climate-Smart Agriculture and Forestry
Producers and landowners interested in climate-smart agriculture and forestry are encouraged to contact the NRCS office at their local USDA Service Center for additional information, including one-on-one support specific to their operation. Visit farmers.gov/service-locator to find your local office.
Visit farmers.gov/climate-smart for additional information on climate solutions for your working land, including USDA programs and digital tools. You may access state-specific application ranking dates for NRCS conservation programs here.
Visit USDA’s Climate Solutions webpage for Department-wide resources, tools and announcements to support agricultural producers and rural communities in making informed, science-based decisions to support climate change mitigation and build climate resilience.