Prefers moist soil. Growth is favored by a 75-90% soil moisture content.
Young plants have no tolerance for submergence and should not be flooded for
more than 2 or 3 days in 1-2 inches of water. Mature plants have some tolerance
for water level fluctuation. This species shares the same zone with Aster
Provides cover and food. Achenes are eaten by mallard ducks and ruffed
grouse. Plants are eaten by muskrats.
Used in upper shoreline zones, upland slope buffers, and in vegetated swales.
Availability, Establishment, and Maintenance
Achenes are available from commercial vendors.
Achenes have a high rate of germination after cold, moist stratification
at 32-34o F for several months and spring planting.
Fresh achenes may also be fall planted by broadcasting and raking into
soil for natural stratification.
Mid to late season drawdown (May -July) stimulates seed production from