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State Soils

Click here to go directly to the list of states. For additional information, please see the State Soil Booklets from the Soil Science Society of America.

What is a State Soil?

A state soil is a soil that has special significance to a particular state. Each state in the United States has selected a state soil, twenty of which have been legislatively established. These “Official State Soils” share the same level of distinction as official state flowers and birds. Also, representative soils have been selected for the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.

Areas with similar soils are grouped and labeled as soil series because their similar origins, chemical, and physical properties cause the soils to perform similarly for land use purposes. A soil series name generally is derived from a town or landmark in or near the area where the soil was first recognized. Each series consists of soils having major horizons that are similar in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in the soil profile. A soil profile is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. It extends from the surface downward to unconsolidated material. Most soils have three major horizons, called the surface horizon, the subsoil, and the substratum.

The surface layer has the maximum accumulation of organic matter and is the horizon of maximum leaching of clay minerals and of iron and aluminum oxides. Some soils have a subsurface layer below the surface layer. The subsoil, which underlies the surface layer or subsurface layer, is the horizon of maximum accumulation of clay minerals, iron and aluminum oxides and other compounds. These compounds may have been leached from the surface layer and redeposited in the subsoil, or may have formed in place. Most likely, they occur as a result of a combination of both of these processes. The subsoil commonly has blocky or prismatic structure and generally is firmer and lighter in color than the surface layer. The substratum is below the surface layer and subsoil. It consists of material that has been somewhat modified by weathering but is relatively unchanged by soil-forming processes.

The photos below were taken by the Smithsonian Institution. If you would like to use these photos in a publication, please credit: United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2006. Photo by Chip Clark, Smithsonian.


Representative and State Soils

Monolith for the state soil of Alabama.Alabama State Soil —

Bama

Factsheet (PDF; 398 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 658 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Nebraska.Nebraska State Soil —

Holdrege

Factsheet (PDF; 341 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 608 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Alaska.Alaska State Soil —

Tanana

Factsheet (PDF; 634 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 620 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Nevada.Nevada State Soil —

Orovada

Factsheet (PDF; 102 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 545 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Arizona.Arizona State Soil —

Case Grande

Factsheet (PDF; 391 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 634 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of New Hampshire.New Hampshire State Soil —

Marlow

Factsheet (PDF; 87 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 622 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Arkansas.Arkansas State Soil —

Stuttgart

Factsheet (PDF; 74 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 674 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of New Jersey.New Jersey State Soil —

Downer

Factsheet (PDF; 96 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 652 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of California.California State Soil —

San Joaquin

Factsheet (PDF; 136 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 600 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of New Mexico.New Mexico State Soil —

Penistaja

Factsheet (PDF; 129 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 581 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Colorado.Colorado State Soil —

Seitz

Factsheet (PDF; 101 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 648 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of New York.New York State Soil —

Honeoye

Factsheet (PDF; 91 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 740 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Connecticut.Connecticut State Soil —

Windsor

Factsheet (PDF; 104 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 687 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of North Carolina.North Carolina State Soil —

Cecil

Factsheet (PDF; 338 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 653 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Delaware.Delaware State Soil —

Greenwich

Factsheet (PDF; 364 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 726 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of North Dakota.North Dakota State Soil —

Williams

Factsheet (PDF; 85 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 559 KB)

 

District of Columbia Representative Soil —

Sunnyside

Factsheet (PDF; 975 KB)

Monolith unavailable

 

Monolith for the state soil of Ohio.Ohio State Soil —

Miamian

Factsheet (PDF; 91 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 575 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Florida.Florida State Soil —

Myakka

Factsheet (PDF; 89 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 548 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Oklahoma.Oklahoma State Soil —

Port

Factsheet (PDF; 394 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 603 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Georgia.Georgia State Soil —

Tifton

Factsheet (PDF; 89 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 644 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Oregon.Oregon State Soil —

Jory

Factsheet (PDF; 329 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 643 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Hawaii.Hawaii State Soil —

Hilo

Factsheet (PDF; 74 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 580 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Pennsylvania.Pennsylvania State Soil —

Hazleton

Factsheet (PDF; 93 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 573 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Idaho.Idaho State Soil —

Threebear

Factsheet (PDF; 94 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 572 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Puerto Rico.Puerto Rico Representative Soil —

Bayamon

Factsheet (PDF; 88 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 615 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Illinois.Illinois State Soil —

Drummer

Factsheet (PDF; 69 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 637 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Rhode Island.Rhode Island State Soil —

Narragansett

Factsheet (PDF; 192 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 634 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Indiana.Indiana State Soil —

Miami

Factsheet (PDF; 86 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 596 KB)

 

South Carolina State Soil —

Bohicket

Factsheet unavailable

Monolith unavailable

 

Monolith for the state soil of Iowa.Iowa State Soil —

Tama

Factsheet (PDF; 403 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 625 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of South Dakota.South Dakota State Soil —

Houdek

Factsheet (PDF; 87 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 592 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Kansas.Kansas State Soil —

Harney

Factsheet (PDF; 68 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 575 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Tennessee.Tennessee State Soil —

Dickson

Factsheet (PDF; 97 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 635 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Kentucky.Kentucky State Soil —

Crider

Factsheet (PDF; 75 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 707 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Texas.Texas State Soil —

Houston Black

Factsheet (PDF; 398 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 568 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Louisiana.Louisiana State Soil —

Ruston

Factsheet (PDF; 102 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 619 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Utah.Utah Soil —

Mivida

Factsheet (PDF; 91 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 687 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Maine.Maine State Soil —

Chesuncook

Factsheet (PDF; 87 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 593 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Vermont.Vermont State Soil —

Tunbridge

Factsheet (PDF; 315 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 524 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Maryland.Maryland State Soil —

Sassafras

Factsheet (PDF; 85 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 599 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Virgin Islands.Virgin Islands Representative Soil —

Victory

Factsheet (PDF; 97 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 701 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Massachusetts.Massachusetts State Soil —

Paxton

Factsheet (PDF; 87 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 655 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Virginia.Virginia State Soil —

Pamunkey

Factsheet (PDF; 115 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 622 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Michigan.Michigan State Soil —

Kalkaska

Factsheet (PDF; 81 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 579 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Washington.Washington State Soil —

Tokul

Factsheet (PDF; 123 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 686 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Minnesota.Minnesota State Soil —

Lester

Factsheet (PDF; 123 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 696 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of West Virginia.West Virginia State Soil —

Monongahela

Factsheet (PDF; 86 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 631 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Mississippi.Mississippi State Soil —

Natchez

Factsheet (PDF; 90 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 637 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Wisconsin.Wisconsin State Soil —

Antigo

Factsheet (PDF; 385 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 663 KB)

 

Missouri State Soil —

Menfro

Factsheet (PDF; 83 KB)

Monolith unavailable

 

Monolith for the state soil of Wyoming.Wyoming State Soil —

Forkwood

Factsheet (PDF; 129 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 659 KB)

Monolith for the state soil of Montana.Montana State Soil —

Scobey

Factsheet (PDF; 376 KB)

Monolith (JPG; 585 KB)