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Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Support for Hispanics in Agr

Participation of Historically Underserved Producers in USDA Conservation Programs
NRCS Support for Hispanics in Agriculture

The webpage below is based on 2012 Ag. Census data.  NASS has updated much of this analysis at this website:
This page has direct links to the AgCensus data tables

This web site contains material prepared for the The National Organization of Professional Hispanic Natural Resources Conservation Service Employees (NOPHNRCSE) Conference in in Fort Worth, TX, June 25-27, 2002. It started with a presentation at the prior NOPHNRCSE meeting Washington, D.C., June 26-30, 2000 by Dr. Fen Hunt  and David Buland, (NRCS) Economists.  Later analysis updated this data with the 2002, 2007, and 2012 Ag. Census data and updated NRCS customer data.  The trend of increasing Hispanic Farms in the US continues, with the number of US counties with Hispanic Farmers increasing from 589 counties in 1982 to 2,407 counties in 2012.   

NRCS Hispanic Data - Paper / Presentation / Posters in various formats

The following documents require Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Word, Adobe Acrobat, Microsoft PowerPoint, or a Zip Utility.

File Name Description
NRCS Civil Rights and REAPdata Divisions Participation of Historically Underserved Producers in USDA Conservation Programs FY2013 - 2015
Outreach Poster 2014 Growth in Hispanic Farms and NRCS’s Response poster 2014
2012 Ag. Census and NRCS EQIP Parity Calculations Poster of updated Parity Calculations with 2012 Ag. Census baseline data and FY2013 NRCS EQIP customers served for Hispanics, African American, and Native American Operators
2007 Ag. Census and NRCS EQIP Parity Calculations Poster of updated Parity Calculations with 2007 Ag. Census baseline data and FY2009 NRCS EQIP customers served for Hispanics, African American, and Native American Operators
Participation in Conservation Programs by Targeted Farmers: Beginning, Limited-Resource, and Socially Disadvantaged Operators' Enrollment Trends Beginning, limited-resource, and socially disadvantaged farmers make up as much as 40 percent of all U.S. farms.  This report compares the natural resource characteristics, resource issues, and conservation treatment costs on farms operated by targeted farmers with those of other participants in the largest U.S. working-lands and land retirement conservation programs.
Small Farms in the United States: Persistence Under Pressure
Ninety-one percent of U.S. farms are classified as small gross cash farm income (GCFI) of less than $250,000. About 60 percent of these small farms are very small, generating GCFI of less than $10,000. These very small noncommercial farms, in some respects, exist independently of the farm economy because their operators rely heavily on off-farm income. The remaining small farms small commercial farms account for most small-farm production. Overall farm production, however, continues to shift to larger operations, while the number of small commercial farms and their share of sales maintain a long-term decline. The shift to larger farms will continue to be gradual, because some small commercial farms are profitable and others are willing to accept losses.
nrcs_supp_hispf.pdf (PDF, 3955 KB)
nrcs_supp_hispf.ppt (PPT, 7716 KB)
nrcs_supp_hispf.doc (DOC, 9794 KB) (ZIP, 4877 KB)
NRCS Support of Hispanic Farmers, By the Numbers
  Who Owns the Land? Ag. Land Ownership by Race/Ethnicity

In ERS Rural America, Winter 2002/Volume 17, Issue 4, By Jess Gilbert Spencer D. Wood Gwen Sharp

hispanic1c6.pdf (PDF, 1932 KB)
hispanic1c6.ppt (PPT, 1239 KB)
Twelve Trends of Hispanic Operated Farms (Poster)
irca6d.pdf (PDF, 1932 KB)
irca6d.ppt (PPT. 1239 KB)
Hispanics in Agriculture, Pre and Post Immigration Reform (Poster) - Updated

hisp_in_ag4.pdf (PDF. 4649 KB)
hisp_in_ag.ppt (PPT, 6353 KB)
hisp_in_ag4.doc (DOC, 8371 KB) (Zip, 7191 KB)


Number and Percent Hispanic USDA Employees, by State, 1997



NRCS Hispanic Data - Source Data

File Name Description
resnod_principal_ops.xls (XLS, 1117 KB) (ZIP, 228 KB)
NEW PRMS Baseline Data from undisclosed 2002 Ag. Census counts on the 'Principal Operator (10/27/2007)
ustables1617b.xls (466 KB) (ZIP, 100 KB)
1982 to 1997 Ag. Census Minority and Hispanic Data for the US
table1617.xls (XLS, 7241 KB) (ZIP, 1981 KB)
1982 to 1997 Ag. Census Minority and Hispanic Data by State (Public Data)
hisp_cnty_numfm.xls (XLS, 4506 KB) (ZIP, 797 KB)

1982 to 1997 Ag. Census Hispanic Data by County (Public Data, missing counts less then 3)


Other Links to Hispanic and Agricultural Census Data


Some of the following documents require Adobe Acrobat.

  1. Buland, David, and Fen Hunt, 2000, Hispanics in Agriculture and Opportunities for Resource Conservation.
  2. Census of Agriculture, 1978, 1982, 1987, & 1992. Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce.
  3. Census of Agriculture, 1997. USDA-National Agriculture Statistics Service.
  4. Choices, Fall-Winter 2001, American Agricultural Economics Association
  5. Demographic Trends, 1990-2000, US Census Bureau, 2002,
  6. Dismukes, Robert, 1997. Characteristics and Risk Management Needs of Limited-Resource and Socially Disadvantaged Farmers. USDA-Economic Research Service, Agriculture Information Bulletin, No. 733.
  7. Durand, J., D.S. Massey, & F. Charvet, 2000. The Changing Geography of Mexican Immigration to the United States: 1910-1996. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 81(1), University of Texas.
  8. Economic Research Service, USDA, Farm Labor: Farm Labor Data
  9. Economic Research Service, USDA, RURAL CONDITIONS AND TRENDS, Vol. 11, #2-47, Economic Research Service, USDA, Farm Labor: Farm Labor Data,  Almost Half of Hired Farmworkers 25 Years and Older Earn Poverty-Level Wages
  10. Effland, A.B.W., and K. Kassel, 1998. Hispanics in Rural America: The Influence of Immigration and Language on Economic Well-Being. In Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Rural Areas: Progress and Stagnation, 1980-1990, L.L. Swanson, ed., USDA-Economic Research Service, Agricultural Economic Report No. 731.
  11. Effland, A.B.W., R.A. Hoppe, & P.R. Cook, 1998. Minority & Women Farmers in the U.S. In Agricultural Outlook, USDA-Economic Research Service, AGO-251.
  12. Fimmen, Carol, Burton Witthuhn, Jeff Crump, Michael Brunn, Gloria Delaney-Barmann, Debi Riggins, Maria Gutierrez, Dan Schabilion, and Britta Watters, 1998. A Spatial Study of the Mobility of Hispanics in Illinois and the Implications for Educational Institutions. Julian Samora Research Institute, Working Paper #43.
  13. Gutierrez P. and J. Eckert, 1991. Contrasts and Commonalities: Hispanic and Anglo Farming in Conejos County, Colorado. Rural Sociology, Vol. 56(2), pp. 247-263.
  14. The Hispanic Population, Census 2000 Brief; US Census Bureau, 2002.
  15. Hoppe, Robert A. and James M. MacDonald; America's Diverse Family Farms: Assorted Sizes, Types, and Situations; USDA-Economic Research Service, AGO- No. 769
  16. Huffman, W.E., and J.A. Miranowski, 1996. Immigration, Meat Packing, and Trade: Implication for Iowa. Iowa State University, Staff Paper #285.
  17. Kraft, S., 1993. Pilot Study of Limited Resource Farm Operators in Southern Illinois: Alexander and Pulaski Counties  Final Report. Submitted to the Illinois State Office of the U.S. Soil Conservation Service and the Shawnee Resource Conservation Development Council.
  18. Money Income in the United States: 2000, US Census Bureau, 2001
  19. Mountjoy, D.C., 1995. Outreach Efforts: The Elkhorn Slough. Small Farm News, University of California at Davis.
  20. Mountjoy D.C., 1996. Ethnic Diversity and the Patterned Adoption of Soil Conservation in the Strawberry Hills of Monterey, California. Society & Natural Resources, 9:339-357.
  21. Natural Resources Conservation Service, 1996. Process for Identifying Limited Resource Farmers and Ranchers. Social Sciences Team, Technical Report, Release 2.1.
  22. Natural Resources Conservation Service, 1997. Working with Asian and Hispanic Limited Resource Farmers and Ranchers. Social Sciences Team, Technical Report, Release 4.1.
  23. Natural Resources Conservation Service, 1998. Conservation in the 1996 Farm Bill: Social Factors Influencing Program Implementation. Social Sciences Team.
  24. Natural Resources Conservation Service, 1999. Social and Economic Data Access Web Site. Social Sciences Team.
  25. Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2000. Performance and Results Measurement System Parity Report. Strategic and Performance Planning Division.
  26. Perry, J., with B. Hoppe, et. al., 1998. Small Farms in the U.S. In Agricultural Outlook, USDA-Economic Research Service, AGO-251.
  27. Rochin, R.I., 1989. The Changing Nature of American Agriculture and Its Impact on Hispanic Farm Labor: Topics for Research and Analysis. Michigan State University, Working Paper No. 3.
  28. Rogers, Carolyn C., 2000. Age and Family Structure, by Race/Ethnicity and Place of Residence, Rural Minority Trends and Progress. In Rural Minority Trends and Progress, USDA-Economic Research Service, AGO-731.
  29. Runyan, Jack L.; The Number of Hired Farmworkers Increased in 2000 and Most Now Come From Minority Groups, in RURAL AMERICA, Fall 2001, V16, I3, p.44
  30. Taylor, J. Edward, Philip L. Martin; For California farmworkers, future holds little prospect for change in California Agricultue, Jan-Feb2000
  31. U.S. Growth and Change in the 1990s, US Census Bureau, 2002,