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Technical Notes

Technical Notes - Vermont NRCS

This page contains Technical Notes, by discipline, created by Vermont NRCS and the national office of NRCS. 

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Technical Note 1:  The Line Transect Method for Estimating Crop Residue Cover  (PDF; 306 KB)

The line transect method has been proven effective in estimating the percent of the ground surface covered by plant residue at any time during the year. Estimates of percent cover are used for determining the impact of residue on sheet and rill erosion.

Technical Note 2:  Using RUSLE2 For The Design And Predicted Effectiveness Of Vegetative Filter Strips For Sediment (PDF; 445 KB) (National Technical Note 2)

The VFS design procedures outlined in the technical note are to be used for the design of conservation practice 393 for the purpose to remove suspended solids (sediment) from runoff.

Technical Note 3:  Animal Diets and Feed Management  (PDF; 1,135 KB) (National Nutrient Management Technical Note 8)

This technical note is intended to outline various aspects of animal nutrition, feed formulation, and feed management practices to enhance nutrient efficiency, reduce nutrient excretion, and potentially improve net income from livestock and poultry farms. This document presents general background information about animal nutrition and feed management practices.

Technical Note 5:  Pest Management in the Conservation Planning Process (PDF; 361 KB) (National Technical Note 5)

This technical note is designed to help conservation planners apply the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Integrated Pest Management (IPM) conservation practice (Code 595) and other NRCS conservation practices in the conservation planning process to prevent and/or mitigate pest management risks to natural resources. 






Technical Note 1:  Vernal Pools in Conservation Planning (PDF; 935 KB)

It is particularly important for conservation planners to recognize these wetlands during the resource inventory phase of the planning process. By doing so, the planner can help landowners understand the importance of vernal pools and help them protect these habitats and the surrounding uplands.

Technical Note 2:  Using Micro and Macrotopography in Wetland Restoration (PDF; 308 KB)

It is particularly important for conservation planners to recognize these wetlands during the resource inventory phase of the planning process. By doing so, the planner can help landowners understand the importance of vernal pools and help them protect these habitats and the surrounding uplands. (This document is Indiana Biology Technical Note No. 1.)

Technical Note 3: New England Pollinator Handbook  (PDF; 2,127 KB)

The New England Pollinator Handbook was developed by the New England NRCS States, the Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation´┐Żs Pollinator Conservation Program, and the University of Maine Cooperative Extension.  This handbook provides information on how to plan for, protect, and create habitat for pollinators in agricultural settings.

Technical Note 4:  Pollinator Habitat This technical note was developed specifically for Vermont to help planners consider pollinator habitat in various planning scenarios.  General habitat requirements are described as well as management ideas for various land cover/uses.  Planting information is provided for both woody and herbaceous species with a good deal of reference information within and at the end of the note. 






Technical Note 1:  Stems Per Acre Line Plot  (PDF; 667 KB)

The Maryland Department of Natural Resources Forest Service developed the sampling method described below to monitor a broad range of riparian forest buffers. This method is designed to collect information about natural regeneration as well as survival of planted trees. The sampling method can be used for plantings with a variety of buffer management practices including mowed sites, overgrown sites and sites with or without tree shelters.

Technical Note 2:  Vermont Trees and Shrubs For Conservation  (XLS; 212 KB)

This technical note is intended to be used by conservation planners and other resource professionals. The tech note contains a general list of trees and shrubs that may be used on conservation projects in Vermont for a variety of purposes. There are also some species that are uncommon or are not readily available for purchase. The species included that are considered uncommon or rare in the state should not be planted without consulting with the VT Fish and Wildlife Department's State Botanist. Some species were included due to their common nature (e.g. hobblebush) and wildlife values. In these cases the information contained here may be used to inform the planning process and provide information to the landowner. 


Plant Materials

Technical Note 1:  Grass Seeding Mixes for Wildlife (PDF; 124 KB)

This technical note was developed by NRCS Biologists in New York and the at the Big Flats Plant Materials Center.

Technical Note 2:  List of Vermont Plants Important to Bees (PDF; 55 KB)

This technical note was developed by VT NRCS as part of the Agency-wide effort to improve habitat for native bees. The annual value of crops pollinated by wild, native bees in the US is estimated at $3 billion. Native bees have declined due to habitat loss and careless use of pesticides. This technical note provides a list of plants known to be important to bees organized by plant type (woody and herbaceous) and by flowering period. The list may be used as a reference for plantings or for management of habitats in Vermont.

Technical Note 3: A Guide to Conservation Plantings on Critical Areas for the Northeast (PDF; 6,334 KB)

 This guide covers some factors to consider when planning and implementing critical area seedings and conservation plantings. It discusses the differences between critical area stabilization, conservation plantings and restoration with an emphasis on critical area stabilization. The use of native species, diversity and the concern for the spread of invasive species is emphasized. It points out the importance of soils and building and maintaining soil quality as an integral part of all conservation plantings. It addresses the need for other measures to control erosion where needed to withstand high velocities of water and to divert water to facilitate successful seedings. It stresses mulching as an integral part of most critical area seedings and plantings. This guide is divided into sections based on the steps in conducting conservation plantings starting with planning, selecting plant material, purchasing plant materials and finally to installing the seeding or planting. It contains multiple tables in the appendix with easy to utilize information on the characteristics of conservation plants.