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Geomorphological Study of the Ouachita Mountains

The National Water Management Center (NWMC) is working with the Arkansas Soil & Water Conservation Commission (ASWCC) to develop a database of reference stream reaches in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. The three-year project began in Oct 2001, with NWMC and ASWCC personnel starting the collection of field data and the analysis of hydrologic records for 50 USGS Gaging Stations (see figure 1 & table 1). Information from the project will be available to the public, via publications and the internet, and is intended to supply landowners, Conservation Districts, transportation officials and others with information regarding the natural stream properties of the Ouachita Mtns.

 

USGS Gages in the Arkansas'  Ouachita Mountains


Figure 1. Image of Locations of sampling sites at USGS gaging stations  (145 KB)

Field Data

Field data collection entails topographic surveys of selected stream reaches, collection of bed and bar sediments, characterization of local geology and stream ecology sampling. The topographic surveys may run from hundreds to thousands of feet, and are intended to collect stream hydraulic geometry parameters including; thalweg elevations, reach slopes, widths, depths, cross sectional areas, channel forming indicators, and top of banks and floodplain elevations. Sediment samples are collected to assist with stream classification and help confirm channel forming discharges. Characterization of the local geology is also used to assist with stream classification and will assist in the development of the regional and regime hydraulic geometry curves. Stream ecology sampling consist of macroinvertebrate sampling to assess biological communities in the streams.

Hydraulic Analysis

The hydraulic analysis for each site begins by obtaining the historical USGS gaging station records. Requested records include; the station descriptions, peak annual flow data, rating tables, and summary discharge measurements. From these records three graphs are plotted. First, discharge versus probability of exceedence (Weibull plot). Second, discharge versus gage elevation. And third, discharge versus cross-sectional area. These relationships are used in the field to help locate elevations of channel forming flows. Additionally, we are applying the data from the topographic survey to model flows through the reach using HEC-RAS, a US Army Corps of Engineers computer program for hydraulic analysis. This helps verify the discharge(s) that best fit the channel forming indicators. HEC-RAS also provides energy slopes and indicates whether the flow are sub-critical or super-critical within the reach for the particular flow being modeled.

Regional & Regime Hydraulic Geometry Curves

Regional hydraulic geometry curves are log-log plots comparing channel dimensions (top width, mean depth, and cross-sectional area) at bankfull discharge versus drainage area. Using these curves, the width, depth and cross-sectional area of the bankfull channel can be approximated once the drainage area of a watershed within the region is known. Regional curves should be used only as indicators to help identify the channel geometry because of the large degree of natural variation in most data sets.

Regime curves are similar to Regional curves in that bankfull width, depth, and cross-sectional area are the dependent variables but discharge is the independent variable rather than drainage area. Statistically, channel-forming (or bankfull) discharge is a more reliable independent variable for hydraulic geometry relations than drainage area. This is because the channel forming discharge is the driving force that creates the observed channel geometry, while drainage area is merely a surrogate for discharge. Discharge will vary depending on: geology, soils, vegetation, drainage area's shape, slope, drainage network, and land use.

Data Availability

As analysis for each site is completed it will be posted on the NWMC's Regional Hydraulic Geometry Curves web page. Once a significant number of sites are completed, we will also post the Regional and Regime Hydraulic Geometry curves to this same web page. Additionally, once all the sites have been analyzed, we will publish a final summary report.

Training

In addition to data collection and analysis, the NWMC and ASWCC will be using the project as an opportunity to train additional personnel in stream characterization and analysis.

Contact Information

ASWCC
Ron Redman
Biologist
501-682-3915
ron.redman@mail.state.ar.us

NWMC
Thom Garday
Hydraulic Engineer
501-210-8905
thom.garday@ar.usda.gov

USGS
Aaron Pugh
USGS Hydrologist

apugh@usgs.gov

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1: Sampling Locations

 

No.

USGS Station Number

USGS
Station
Name

Location

Section

Town-

ship

Range

County

USGS
7 1/2
Minute
Quad

Comments

Drain-
age Area
mi2

Period Record
years

1

07247000

Poteau
River at
Cauthron

Right bank
at down
stream
side of
bridge at Cauthron

NW1/4
SW1/4
SECT 16

3 NORTH

31 WEST

Scott

H3 -
Cauthron

 

203.00

Feb 1939 - current

2

07249400

James
Fork nr
Hackett,
AR

nr left
bank on
d-stream
side of
Hwy 45
bridge

NW1/4 NW1/4
SECT 34

6 NORTH

32 WEST

Sebas-
tian

B4 -
Hackett

1.7 mi
south of
Hackett,
3.6 mi
up-stream
from
AR-OK
border

147.00

Apr 1598 - current

3

07258500

Petit
Jean
River nr
Boone-
ville

Right
bank at
d-stream
side of
Hwy 23
bridge

NW1/4
NW1/4
SECT 18

5 NORTH

27 WEST

Logan

A8 -
Golden City,
B8 - Boone-
ville

2.3 mi
south of
Boone-
ville

241.00

Nov 1938 -
Sep 1984,
Oct 1999 - current

4

07259500

Petit
Jean
River nr
Waveland

On Left
Bank, 0.8
mile DS
fr Rock
Creek

SE 1/4
SW 1/4
SEC 11

5 NORTH

25 WEST

Yell

A6 -
Blue Mtn
Dam

1.3 miles
south of
Waveland

516.00

Jan 1939-
1980 - 1981

5

07260000

Dutch
Creek at
Waltreak

On left
bank 0.2
mi north
of
Waltreak

SE1/4
NW1/4
SECT 24

4 NORTH

25 WEST

Yell

H5 -
Bluffton

 

81.40

Oct 1945 -
Sep 1975,
Oct 1999 - current

6

07260500

Petit Jean
River at
Danville

On right
bank
125 ft
upstream
Hwy 10
bridge

NW1/4
SE1/4
SECT 25

5 NORTH

23 WEST

Yell

A4 -
Danville

0.3 mi
d-stream
from old
Chicago,
Rock
Island &
Pacific
RR bridge

764.00

June 1916 - current

7

07261500

Fourche
Lafae
River nr
Gravelly

Nr left
bank on
d-stream
side of
 Hwy 28
bridge

NW1/4
NW1/4
SECT 34

3 NORTH

25 WEST

Yell

G6 -
Little
Texas

1.9 mi
east of
Gravelly

410.00

Feb 1939 -
Sep 1994,
Oct 1999 - current

8

07262500

Fourch La
Fave
River nr
Nimrod,
AR

On left
bank
2,000 ft
DS fr
Nimrod
 Dam

NW 1/4
SW 1/4
SECT 32

4 NORTH

20 WEST

Perry

H2 -
Nimrod
Dam

4.5 miles
SW of
Nimrod

684.00

Apr 1927-
Apr 1991

9

07263295

Maumelle
River at
Williams
Junction

Nr left
bank on
d-stream
side of
Hwy 9
Bridge

SE1/4
NE1/4
SECT 26

3 NORTH

17 WEST

Perry

H7 -
Thorn-
burg
G7 -
Paron

Bridge
0.4 mi
south of
Williams
Junction

46.10

Oct 1989 - current

10

07263300

Maumelle
River at
Maumelle
Dam at
Natural
Steps

Right
bank
100 ft
upstream
from
spillway

SW1/4
SE1/4
SECT 27

3 NORTH

14 WEST

Pulaski

G4 -
Pinnacle
Mtn

0.5 mi
west of
Natural
Steps

137.00

Oct 1989 - current

11

07263465

Storm
Ditch at
Rolling
Oaks
Drive
at
Maumelle

On
d-stream
side of
culvert
apron at
Rolling
Oaks
Drive at Maumelle.

NW1/4
SW1/4
SECT 21

3 NORTH

13 WEST

Pulaski

G4 -
Pinnacle
Mtn

 

36.00

0

12

07338700

Twomile
Creek nr
Hatfield,
AR

On Right
Bank, 130'
US fr
US Hwy 71 bridge

NW 1/4
NW 1/4 SECT 8

3 SOUTH

31 WEST

Polk

E3 -
Potter

Crest
stage
station

15.90

Oct 1,
1962 to
Sept 30,
1983

13

07339500

Rolling
Fork nr
DeQueen

At U.S.
HWY 70
bridge,
4.0 mi
West of DeQueen

SW1/4 SW1/4
SECT 21

8 SOUTH

32 WEST

Sevier

A3 -
DeQueen

 

182.00

1948-1980f, 1981-2000

14

07339800

Pepper
Creek nr
DeQueen

at Bridge
on
US 71,
 1.5 mi
E of
US 70 &
71

ON N LINE NW 1/4
NE 1/4
SECT 28

8 SOUTH

31 WEST

Sevier

A3 -
DeQueen

Crest
Stage
Gage
2.3 Miles
East of
DeQueen

6.41

1961 to
1986

15

07340200

West Flat
Creek nr
Foreman

on left
bank
25 ft DS
fr Bridge
on  SH 41

NW 1/4
SW 1/4
SECT 2

12 SOUTH

32 WEST

Little
River

G4 -
Arkinda

Crest
Stage
Gage
 2.3 Miles
North of
Foreman

10.58

1962 to
1983

16

07340300

Cossatot
River nr
Vander-
voort

right bank,
200' US
fr Bridge
on SH 246

SE 1/4
NE 1/4
SECT 30

4 SOUTH

30 WEST

Polk

D2 -
Eagle Mtn

7.5 Miles
East of
Vander-
voort

89.60

June 12, 1967
to Present
(WY 2000)

17

07340500

Cossatot
River nr
DeQueen

500 ft
 d-stream fr
US Hwy 70
& 71
bridge

NE1/4
NE1/4
SECT 29

8 SOUTH

30 WEST

Sevier

A3 -
DeQueen

7.0 mi
east of
DeQueen

361.00

1938-1980f, 1981-2000

18

07340530

Mill Slough
Trib nr
Lockes-
burg

Left Bank,
15' US
fr Culvert
on SH 24

On S Line SW1/4 NW1/4
Sect 22

9 SOUTH

30 WEST

Sevier

H2 - Lockes-
burg

1.3 Miles
west of
Locks-
burg

0.64

1963 - 1986

19

07341000

Saline
River nr
Dierks

D-stream
end of
2nd pier
fr right bank U.S. Hwy
70 bridge

NW1/4
SW1/4 SECT 3

8 SOUTH

29 WEST

Howard

A1 -
Dierks

4.0 mi
southwest
of Dierks

124.00

1939 - 1972

20

07341100

Rock
Creek nr
Dierks

on left
bank,
130' US
fr Bridge
on US 70

SW 1/4
NE 1/4
SECT 36

7 SOUTH

29 WEST

Howard

A1 -
Dierks

Crest
Stage
Gage
1.4 miles southwest
of Dierks

9.50

1961 to 1983

21

07341200

Saline
River nr
Lockes-
burg

On right
bank 50 ft upstream
Hwy 24
bridge

NE1/4
SE1/4 SECT 23

9 SOUTH

29 WEST

Sevier

H1 -
Silver
Ridge

6.0 mi
east of
Lockes-
burg

256.00

Jun 1963 - current

22

07341700

Caney
Creek nr
Hope

on Right
Bank,
115' US
fr Bridge
On SH 4

SE 1/4 NE 1/4 SEC 24

12 SOUTH

25 WEST

Hemp-
stead

F6 -
Shep-
pard

Crest
Stage
Gage
3.1 miles
NW
of Hope

12.90

1961 to 1983

23

07355800

Lewis
Creek
Tributary
nr Mena,
AR

at Culvert
on US
Hwy 71,
3.1 mi NE
of Mena

NE 1/4 SW 1/4 SEC 33

1 SOUTH

30 WEST

Polk

E2 -
MENA

@ Culvert
on US
Hwy 71,
3.1 mi NE
of Mena

0.65

Oct 1, 1960
to Present
(2002)

24

07355900

Big Fork
Tributary
nr Big
Fork, AR

right bank,
7' US fr
Culvert
on SH 8

SE1/4 NW1/4 SEC 23

3 SOUTH

28 WEST

Polk

D8 -
Big Fork

0.2 mi
US Mouth
 &
0.9 mi
SE Big Fork

0.19

Oct 1, 1963
to Sept 30,
1983

25

07356000

Ouachita
River nr
Mount
Ida, AR

right bank
300' US
 of US
Hwy 270
bridge

SE 1/4 SW 1/4 SEC 32

1 SOUTH

25 WEST

Mont-
gomery

E6 -
Mt. Ida

5.2 mi
NW of
Mt Ida
@
RM 553.4

414.00

Nov, 1941 to Current

26

07356500

South Fork Ouachita
River at
Mount
Ida, AR

DS side
 of US
Hwy 270
bridge

NE 1/4 NE 1/4 SEC 23

2 SOUTH

25 WEST

Mont-
gomery

E5 -
Reed
Mtn

3.4 miles
US
Williams
Cr, @ RM
22.5

61.00

Oct 1, 1949
to Sept 30,
1978

27

07356700

Barnes
Branch nr
Mount
Ida, AR

Right bank
35' US fr culvert on
SH 27

SE 1/4 SE 1/4 SEC 13

2 SOUTH

25 WEST

Mont-
gomery

E5 -
Reed
Mtn

1.1 mi
NE
Mt Ida
& 0.3 mi
US of
mouth

1.85

Oct 1, 1960
to Sept 30,
1982

28

07357700

Glazypeau
Creek at
Mtn Valley,
AR

on RT Bank
12' DS
& RT WW
2" DS fr
SH 7

SE1/4 SE1/4 SEC 20

1 SOUTH

19 WEST

Garland

E1 -
Hot
Springs
N, F1 -
Jessie-
ville

0.3 mi
SE
of Mtn
Valley

3.84

Oct 1, 1960
to Sept 30,
1986

29

07359520

Jackson
Creek nr
Malvern

on left
bank
40 ft US
fr culvert
on SH 84

SW 1/4 NE 1/4 SEC 19

4 SOUTH

17 WEST

Hot
Springs

C7 -
Malvern
South

Crest
Stage
Gage
3.2 miles
W of
Malvern

3.00

Oct 1, 1961
to Sept 30,
1981

30

07359610

Caddo
River nr
Caddo
Gap

At DS side
Hwy 240
bridge

SW1/4 NE1/4 SECT 19

4 SOUTH

24 WEST

Mont-
gomery

D5 -
Caddo
Gap

1.3 mi
SE of
Caddo
Gap

132.00

1988 -
current

31

07359700

Caddo
River at
Glenwood

DS Side of
US Hwy
70 bridge
at
Glenwood

SECT 10

5 SOUTH

24 WEST

Pike

C5 -
Glen-
wood

Recording
Gage from
Nov 1946

201.00

1945 - 1980

32

07359750

Little
Sugarloaf
Creek nr
Bonner-
dale

On rt bank
33' US
fr Bridge
on US 70

NW 1/4 SW 1/4 SEC 27

4 SOUTH

23 WEST

Mont-
gomery

C4 -
Amity

Crest
Stage
Gage
4.7 miles
SW of
Bonner-
dale

2.34

Oct 1, 1962
to Sept 30,
1983

33

07359800

Caddo
River nr
Alpine

Runyan
Brdg,
county rd
btwn Alpine
& Bismarck

SW 1/4 SE 1/4 SEC 28

5 SOUTH

22 WEST

Clark

C3 -
Point
Cedar

 

311.97

WY 1927,
1939 to
1970

34

07360150

Pearson
Creek
Tributary
nr Dalark

On rt bank
10 ft US fr Culvert
on SH 8

SE 1/4 NW 1/4 SEC 17

8 SOUTH

17 WEST

Dallas

A7 -
Manning

Crest
Stage
 Gage
1.1 miles E
of Dalark

0.40

Oct 1, 1960
to Sept 30,
1982

35

07360800

Muddy Fork
Creek nr Murfrees-
boro

 

NE 1/4 SEC 3

8 SOUTH

26 WEST

Pike

A6 - Murfrees-
boro

3 miles
NW of
Murfrees-
boro

120.85

1940 - 1980

36

07361000

Little
Missouri
River nr
Murfrees-
boro

On DS Side
of Bridge
on SH 27

SE 1/4 SEC 13

8 SOUTH

26 WEST

Pike

A6 - Murfrees-
boro

2 miles
SW of
Murfrees-
boro

380.00

1927 - 1949

37

07361020

Prairie
Creek
Tributary
nr
Kirby

On rt bank 19' US fr Culvert on SH 27

SE 1/4 SEC 11

7 SOUTH

25 WEST

Pike

B6 -
Narrows
Dam

Crest
Stage
Gage
6.6 miles
South of
Kirby

0.16

Oct 1962 to
Sept 1986

38

07361180

South Fork
Ozan
Creek
nr
Ozan

On rt bank
39' US fr
Bridge
on SH 4

SE 1/4 SW 1/4 SEC 5

11 SOUTH

25 WEST

Hemp-
stead

G6 - Washing-
ton

16 ft
Post Type
Crest
 Stage Gage
2 miles
South of
Ozan

17.68

June 1962 to Present

39

07361200

Ozan
Creek nr McCaskill

DS fr
Bridge on
SH 24

SE 1/4 NE 1/4 SEC 18

10 SOUTH

24 WEST

Hemp-
stead

H5 -
Pisgah

Recording
Gage
3.5 miles
SE
of
McCaskill

147.88

Oct 1939 to
1980

40

07361500

Antoine
River at
Antoine

Nr right
bank on DS side of
Hwy 26
bridge

NW1/4 NW1/4 SECT 24

8 SOUTH

23 WEST

Pike

A4 -
Antoine

At
Antoine

178.00

Oct 1954 - current

41

07361680

Middle
Caney
Creek
Tributary
nr
Rosston

On rt bank
20 ft US
fr Culvert
on SH 19

SW 1/4 SE 1/4 SEC 17

13 SOUTH

21 WEST

Nevada

E3 - Willisville

Crest
Stage
Gage
1 mile N
of SH 4 & 19

1.48

Oct 1, 1960
to Sept 30,
1986

42

07361780

Bradshaw
Creek nr Hollywood

On left bank 25 ft DS
fr Bridge
on SH 26

NE 1/4 SE 1/4 SEC 26

7 SOUTH

21 WEST

Clark

A2 -
Holly-
wood

Crest
Stage
 Gage 2.6
miles E of
Holly-
wood

3.46

Oct 1, 1961
to Sept 30,
1981

43

07361800

Terre
Noire Creek
East of
Gurdon

On DS side
of Bridge o
n SH 26

SW 1/4 SEC 27

9 SOUTH

19 WEST

Clark

H1 -
Curtis

Recording 
Gage
6.75 miles
E of Gurdon

250.19

Oct 1, 1939
to Sept 30,
1980

44

07362587

Alum Fork
Saline River
nr Reform

100 ft
above low-water bridge on forest road

NW1/4 NE1/4 SECT 29

2 NORTH

18 WEST

Saline

G8 -
Paron
SW

5.7 mi
west of
Reform

27.00

Oct 1989 -
current

45

07363000

Saline
River at
Benton

Left Bank
DS side
US Hwy 67 bridge

SE 1/4 NE1/4 SECT 9

2 SOUTH

15 WEST

Saline

E5 -
Benton

On left bank
0.8 mile
west of
Benton

550.00

1951 - 1979f, 1980 - 2000

46

07363050

Holly Creek Tributary
nr Benton

At culvert
on SH 35

SW 1/4 NW 1/4 SEC 19

2 SOUTH

14 WEST

Saline

E5 -
Benton

Crest
Stage
Gage
2.8 miles
SE of
 Benton

1.44

Oct 1, 1961
to Sept 30,
1986

47

07363300

Hurricane
Creek nr
Sheridan

On DS side
of US 270 Bridge

NW 1/4 NE 1/4 SEC 6

5 SOUTH

12 WEST

Grant

C3 -
Prague

Recording
Gage
3.5 miles
E of
Sheridan

203.86

Oct 1, 1959
to Sept 30,
1995

48

07363330

West Fork
Big Creek
at Sheridan

On right
bank
60 ft US
fr US 167 Bridge

NW 1/4 NE 1/4 SEC 3

5 SOUTH

13 WEST

Grant

C4 - Sheridan

Crest
Stage
 Gage
0.9 miles
N of US
167 & 270

4.86

Oct 1, 1959
to Sept 30,
1981

49

07363400

Hurricane
Creek
below
Sheridan

On DS
side of
SH 35
bridge

SW1/4 NW1/4 SECT 1

6 SOUTH

13 WEST

Grant

B3 -
Grape-
vine

6.0 mi
south of
Sheridan

261.00

Oct 1995 -
current

50

07363430

East Fork Derrieus-
seaux
Creek nr Pine Bluff

On right
bank 14 ft
US fr
culvert on
US 270

NW 1/4 NW 1/4 SEC 10

5 SOUTH

11 WEST

Grant

C2 -
Hardin

Crest
 Stage
Gage
12 miles
NW of
Pine Bluff

0.64

WY 1961
to 1982

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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