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Soil Geochemistry Spatial Database - References

References below are not intended to be comprehensive, but were chosen to provide persons interested in geochemistry a starting point in a literature review.

Application Studies

Abaye, D.A., K. Lawlor, P.R. Hirsch, and P.C. Brookes. 2005. Changes in the microbial community of an arable soil caused by long-term metal contamination. Europ. J. Soil Sci. 2005:93-102.

Berti, W.R., and L.W. Jacobs. 1996. Heavy metals in the environment. Chemistry and phytotoxicity of soil trace elements from repeated sewage sludge application. J. Environ. Qual. 25:1025-1032.

Brimhall, G.H., C.J. Lewis, C. Ford, J. Bratt, G. Taylor, and O. Warin. 1991. Quantitative geochemical approach to pedogenesis: importance of parent material reduction, volumetric expansion, and eolian influx in laterization. Geoderma 51:51-91.

Burt, R., M.A. Wilson, M.D. Mays, T.J. Keck, M. Fillmore, A.W. Rodman, E.B. Alexander, and L. Hernandez. 2000. Trace and Major Elemental Analysis Applications in the U.S. Cooperative Soil Survey Program. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 31(11-14), 1757-1771.

Burt, R., M. Filmore, M.A. Wilson, E.R. Gross, R.W. Langridge, and D.A. Lammers. 2001. Soil Properties of selected pedons on ultramafic rocks in Kalmath Mountains, Oregon. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 32(13&14):2145-2175.

Chapman, S.L., and M.E. Horn. 1968. Parent material uniformity and origin of silty soils in Northwest Arkansas based on zirconium-titanium contents. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 32:265-271.

Cao, R.X., L.Q. Ma, M. Chen, S.P. Singh, and W.G. Harris. 2003. Phosphate-induced metal immobilization in a contaminated site. Environ. Pollu. 122:19-28.

Dubbin, W.E., A.R. Mermut, and H.P.W. Rostad. 1993. Clay mineralogy of parent material derived from uppermost Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary rocks in southern Saskatchewan. Can. J. Soil Sci. 73:447-457.

Gambrell, R.P. 1994. Trace and toxic metals in wetlands - a review. J. Environ. Qual. 23:883-891.

Garrett, R.G., G.C. Lalor, and M. Vutchkov. 2004. Geochemical exploration for gold in Jamaica: a comparison of stream sediment and soil surveys. Geochemistry, Exploration, Environ. Anal. 4:161-170.

Huang, B., and Z. Gong. 2005. Geochemical barriers and elemental retention in soils in different landscapes of the Tianshan Mountain area, Xinjiang, China. Geoderma. 126: 337-351.

Huang, S. & Ji-Yun Jin. 2008. Status of heavy metals in agricultural soils as affected by different patterns of land use. Environmental monit. Assess. 139:317–327.

Jersak, J., R. Amundson, and G. Brimhall, Jr. 1997. Trace Metal Geochemistry in Spodosols of the Northeastern United States. J. Environ. Qual. 26:511-521.

Johnson-Maynard, J.L., R.C. Graham, P.J. Shouse, and S.A. Quideau. 2005. Base cation and silicon biogeochemistry under pine and scrub oak monocultures: implications for weathering rates. Geoderma. 126:353-365.

Jones, C.A., W.P. Inskeep, and D.R. Neuman. 1997. Arsenic transport in contaminated mine tailings following liming. J. Environ. Qual. 26:433-439.

Kaup, B.S., and B.J. Carter. 1987. Determining Ti source and distribution within a Paleustalf by micromorphology, submicroscopy, and elemental analysis. Geoderma 40:141-156.

Lee, S.Y., and R.J. Gilkes. 2005. Groundwater geochemistry and composition of hardpans in southwestern Australian regolith. Geoderma. 126:59-84.

Martens, D.A., and D.L. Suarez. 1997. Selenium speciation of marine shales, alluvial soils, and evaporation basin soils of California. J. Environ. Qual. 26:424-432.

Marques, J., D.G. Schulze, N. Curi, S.A. Mertzman. 2004. Major element geochemistry and geomorphic relationships in Brazilian Cerrado soils. Geoderma. 119:179–195.

Masscheleyn, P.H., R.D. Delaune, and W.H. Patrick, Jr. 1991. Arsenic and selenium chemistry as affected by sediment redox potential and pH. J. Environ. Qual. 20:522-527.

Moller, A., H.W. Muller, A. Abdullah, G. Abdelgawad, and J. Utermann. 2005. Urban soil pollution in Damascas, Syria: concentrations and patterns of heavy metals in soils of the Damascus Ghouta. Geoderma. 124:63-71.

Muhs, D.R., E.A. Bettis, III, J. Been, and J.P. McGeehin. 2001. Impact of climate and parent material on chemical weathering in loess-derived soils of the Mississippi River Valley. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65:1761-1777.

Oh, N., and D.D. Richter. 2005. Elemental translocation and loss from three highly weathered soil-bedrock profiles in the southeastern United States. Geoderma. 126:5-25.

Onken, B.M., and L.R. Hossner. 1995. Plant uptake and determination of arsenic species in soil solution under flooded conditions. J. Environ. Qual. 24:373-381.

Tiller, K.G. 1989. Heavy metals in soils and their environmental significance. In B.A. Stewart (ed.). Advances in Soil Sci. Vol. 9. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. p. 113-142.

Wilcke, W., S. Kretzschmar, M. Bundt, and W. Zech. 1999. Metal concentrations in aggregate interiors, exteriors, whole aggregates, and bulk of Costa Rican soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 63:1244-1249.

Wilson, M.A., R. Burt, S.J. Indorante, A.B. Jenkins, J.V. Chiaretti, M.G. Ulmer, J.M. Scheyer. 2008. Geochemistry in the modern soil survey program. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 139:151–171.

Wilson, M.A., R. Burt, T.M. Sobecki, R.J. Engel, and K. Hipple. 1996. Soil Properties and Genesis of Pans in Till-derived Andisols, Olympic Peninsula, Washington. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 60:206-218.

Yin, J., H.E. Allen, Y. Li, C.P. Huang, and P.F. Sanders. 1996. Adsorption of mercury(II) by soil: Effects of pH, chloride, and organic matter.

Zereini, F., F. Alt, J. Messerschmidt, C. Wiseman, I. Feldmann, A. von Bohlen, J. Muller, K. Liebl, and W. Puttmann. 2005. Concentration and distribution of heavy metals in urban airborne particulate matter in Frankfort am Main, Germany. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39(9):2983-2989.


Brown, S., R. Chaney, J. Hallfrisch, J.A. Ryan, and W.R. Berti. 2004. In situ soil treatments to reduce the phyto- and bioavailability of lead, zinc, and cadmium. J. Environ. Qual. 33:522-531.

Burt, R., M.A. Wilson, T.J. Keck, B.D. Dougherty, D.E. Strom, and J.A. Lindahl. (2003). Trace Element Speciation in Selected Smelter-Contaminated Soils in Anaconda and Deer Lodge Valley, Montana, USA. Advances in Environmental Research. 8/1: 51-67.

Chaney, R.L. and E.C. Codling. 2005. Bio-Based Plant Nutrient Products: Heavy Metals Considerations. In Proc. W orkshop Bio-Based Plant Nutrient Products. pp. 22-36. In: Biobased Plant Nutrient Products: Quality Assurance, Marketing and Regulations. R. Reynelles (ed.) Seattle, WA, Oct. 31, 2004.) USDACREES, Washington, DC.

Darmondy, R.G., J.C. Marlin, J. Talbott, R.A. Green, E.F. Brewer, and C. Stohr. 2004. Dredged Illinois River Sediments: Plant growth and metal uptake. J. Environ. Qual. 33:458-464.

Fox, M.R.S. 1988. Nutritional factors that may influence the bioavailability of cadmium. J. Environ. Qual. 17:175-180.

Houba, V.J.G., Th.M. Lexmond, I. Novozamsky, J.J. van der Lee. 1996. State of the art and future developments in soil analysis for bioavailability assessment. The Sci. of Total Environ. 178:21-28.

Kirkham, M.B. 2006. Cadmium in plants on polluted soils: Effects of soil factors, hyperaccumulation, and amendments. Geoderma 137:19–32.

Kubota, J. 1964. Cobalt content of New England soils in relation to cobalt levels in forages for ruminant animals. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 28:246-251.

McBride, M.B., E.A. Nibarger, B.K. Richards, and T. Steenhuis. 2003. Trace metal accumulation by red clover grown on sewage sludge-amended soils and correlations to Mehlich3 and calcium chloride-extractable metals. Soil Sci. 168, 1: 29-38.

Pierzynski, G.M., and A.P. Schwab. 1993. Bioavailability of zinc, cadmium, and lead in a metal-contaminated alluvial soil. J. Environ. Qual. 22:247-254.

Serrano, S., F. Garrido, C.G. Campbell, and M.T. Garcia-Gonzalez. 2004. Competitive sorption of cadmium and lead in acid soils of Central Spain. Geoderma. 124:91-104.

Storm, G.L., G.J. Fosmire, and E.D. Bellis. 1994. Persistence of metals in soil and selected vertebrates in the vicinity of the Palmerton zinc smelters. J. Environ. Qual. 23:508-514.

Trancoso, M. A., M. M. Correia dos, and M. L. S. Goncalves. 2007. Lead sorption to selected Portuguese soils. Europ. J. Soil Sci. 58: 854–863.

Distribution of Trace Elements in Soils

Ammons, J.T., R.J. Lewis, J.L. Branson, M.E. Essington, A.O. Gallagher, and R.L. Livingston. 1997. Total elemental analysis for selected soil profiles in Tennessee. Bulletin 693. The Univ. of Tennessee Agric. Exp. Stn., Knoxville.

Burt, R., M.A. Wilson, M.D. Mays, and C.W. Lee. 2003. Major and Trace Elements of Selected Pedons in the U.S. J. of Environ. Qual. 32:2109-2121.

Caillaud, J., D. Proust, S. Philippe, C. Fontaine, and M. Fialin. 2009. Trace metals distribution from a serpentinite weathering at the scales of the weathering profile and its related weathering microsystems and clay minerals. Geoderma. 149:199–208.

Chen, Ming, Lena Q. Ma, and Willie G. Harris. 1999. Baseline concentrations of 15 trace elements in Florida surface soils. J. Environ. Qual. 28:1173-1181.

Chen, M., L.Q. Ma, and W. G. Harris, 2002. Arsenic concentrations in Florida surface soils: Influence of soil type and properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66: 632-640.

Chen, M. and L.Q. Ma. 2001. Taxonomic and geographic distribution of total phosphorus in Florida surface soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65: 1539-1547.

Chen, M., L.Q. Ma, and W.G. Harris. 1999. Baseline concentrations of 15 elements in Florida surface soils. J. Environ. Qual. 28:1173-1181.

Chirenje, T., L.Q. Ma, M. Chen, and E.J. Zillioux. 2003. Comparison between background concentrations of arsenic in urban and non-urban areas of Florida. Adv. Environ Res. In Press. Corrected Proof, Available online 29 March 2003.

Chirenje, T., L.Q. Ma, M. Reeves, and M. Szulczewski. 2004. Lead distribution in near-surface soils of two Florida cities : Gainesville and Miami. Geoderma. 119 :113-120.

Ciolkosz, E.J., A.W. Rose, W.J. Waltman, and N.C. Thurman. 1993a. Total elemental analysis of Pennsylvania soils. Agronomy Series No. 126. Dep. of Agronomy, Penn. State Univ., University Park.

Ciolkosz, E.J., M.K. Amistadi, and N.C. Thurman. 1993b. Metals in Pennsylvania soils. Agronomy Series No. 128. Dep. of Agronomy, Penn. State Univ., University Park.

Ciolkosz, E.J., R.C. Stehouwer, and M.K. Amistadi. 1998. Metal data for Pennsylvania soils. Agronomy Series No. 140. Dep. of Agronomy, Penn. State Univ., University Park.

Haluschak, P.W., G.F. Mills, R.G. Eilers, and S. Grift. 1998. Status of selected trace elements in agricultural soils of southern Manitoba. Tech. Bull. 1998-6E. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 71pp.

Han, F.X., W.L. Kingery, J.E. Hargreaves, and T.W. Walker. 2007. Effects of land uses on solid-phase distribution of micronutrients in selected vertisols of the Mississippi River Delta. Geoderma. 142: 96–103.

Hansford, T. S., and J.G. Boerngen. 1984. Element concentrations in soils and other surficial materials of the coterminous United States. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1270. U.S. Govt. Print. Office, Washington, DC.

Holmgren, G.G.S., M.W. Meyer, R.L. Chaney, and R.B. Daniels. 1993. Cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, and nickel in agricultural soils in the United States of America. J. Environ. Qual. 22:335-348.

Ikem, A., M. Campbell, I. Nyirakabibi and J. Garth. 2008. Baseline concentrations of trace elements in residential soils from Southeastern Missouri. Environ. Monit. Assess. 140:69–81.

Lee, B.D., B.J. Carter, N.T. Basta, and B.Weaver. 1997. Factors influencing heavy metal distribution in six Oklahoma benchmark soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 61:218-223.

Liao, Q., L.J. Evans. X. Gu, D. Fan, Y. Jin, H. Wang. 2007. A regional geochemical survey of soils in Jiangsu Province, China: Preliminary assessment of soil fertility and soil contamination. Geoderma. 142:18-28.

Ma, L.Q., F. Tan, and W.G. Harris. 1997. Concentrations and distributions of eleven metals in Florida soils. J. Environ. Qual. 26:769-775.

Madrid, L., E. Diaz-Barrientos, R. Reinoso, and F. Madrid. 2004. Metals in urban soils of sevilla: seasonal changes and relations with other soil components and plant contents. European J. Soil Sci. 55:209-217.

Marques, J.J., D.G. Schulze, N. Curi, and S.A. Mertzman. 2004. Major element geochemistry and geomorphic relationships in Brazilian Cerrado soils. Geoderma. 119:179-195.

Mermut, A.R., J.C. Jain, Li Song, R. Kerrich, L. Kozak, and S. Jana. 1996. Trace element concentrations of selected soils and fertilizers in Saskatchewan, Canada. J. Environ. Qual. 25:845-853.

Mielke, H.W. 1991. Lead in Residential Soils: Background and preliminary results of New Orleans. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 57-58:111-119.

Myers, J., and K. Thorbjornsen. 2004. Identifying Metals Contamination in Soil: A Geochemical Approach. Soil & Sediment Contamination, 13:1–16.

Nriagu, J.O. 1979. Global inventory of natural and anthropogenic emissions of trace elements to the atmosphere. Nature (London) 279:409-411.

Pettry, D.E. and R.E. Switzer. 1993. Heavy metal concentration in selected soils and parent materials in Mississippi. Bulletin 998. Office of Agricultural Communications, Mississippi State Univ., Starkville.

Pierce, F.J., R.H. Dowdy, and D.F. Grigal. 1982. Concentrations of six trace elements in some major Minnesota soil series. J. Environ. Qual. 11:416-422.

Sierra, M., F.J. Martínez, and J. Aguilar. 2007. Baselines for trace elements and evaluation of environmental risk in soils of Almería (SE Spain). Geoderma 139:209–219.

Slagle, A. 2001. Background concentrations of trace elements in three West Virginia soils -- MLRA-126.M.S. Thesis, West Virginia Univ. Morgantown. (Available on line at

Thorbjornsen, K., and J. Myers. 2007. Identification of Metals Contamination in Firing-Range Soil Using Geochemical Correlation Evaluation. Soil & Sediment Contamination, 16:337–349.

Wilcke, W., and W. Amelung. 1996. Small-scale heterogeneity of aluminum and heavy metals in aggregates along a climatic transt. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 60:1490-1495.

White, J.G., R.M. Welch, and W.A. Norvell. 1997. Soil zinc map of the USA using geostatistics and geographic information systems. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 61:185-194.

Method of Digestion/Analysis

Amonette, J.E., and R.W. Sanders. 1994. Nondestructive techniques for bulk elemental analysis. In J.E. Amonette and L.W. Zelazny (eds.) Quantitative Methods in Soil Mineralogy. Soil Sci. Soc. Misc. Publ. Madison, WI. pp. 1-48.

Basta, N.T., and M.A. Tabatabai. 1991. Determination of total metals in sewage sludges by ion chromatography. J. Eviron. Qual. 20:79-88.

Birkefled, A. R. Schulin, and B. Nowack. 2005. A new in situ method to analyze mineral particle reactions in soils. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39:3302-3307.

Chen, Ming, and Lena Q. Ma. 1998. Comparison of four USEPA digestion methods for trace metal analysis using certified and Florida soils. J. Environ. Qual. 27:1294-1300.

Chen, M. and L.Q. Ma. 2001. Comparison of three aqua regia digestion methods for twenty Florida sandy soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65:491-499.

Crock, J.G. 1996. Mercury. In D.L. Sparks (ed.) Methods of soil analysis. Part 3. Chemical methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Book Series: 5:769-791.

Fendorf, S., and D.L. Sparks. 1996. X-ray absorption fine structure spectrocopy. In D.L. Sparks (ed.) Methods of soil analysis. Part 3. Chemical methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Book Series: 5:377-416.

Horvat, M., N.S. Bloom, and L. Liang. 1993a. Comparison of distillation with other current isolation methods for the determination of methyl mercury compounds in low level environmental samples. Part 1. Sediments. Analytica Chimica Acta, 281:135-152.

Horvat, M., L. Liang, and N.S. Bloom. 1993b. Comparison of distillation with other current isolation methods for the determination of methyl mercury compounds in low level environmental samples. Part 1. Sediments. Analytica Chimica Acta, 282:153-168.

Huang, P.M., and R. Fujii. 1996. Selenium and arsenic. In D.L. Sparks (ed.) Methods of soil analysis. Part 3. Chemical methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Book Series: 5:793-831.

James, B.R. 1994. Hexavalent chromium solubility and reduction in alkaline soils enriched with chromite ore processing residue. J. Environ. Qual. 23:227-233.

Laird, D.A., R.H. Dowdy, and R.C. Munter. 1991. Suspension nebulization analysis of clays by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55:274-278.

Mesuere, K., R.E. Martin, and W. Fish. 1991. Identification of Copper Contamination in Sediments by a Microscale Partial Extraction Technique. J. Environ. Qual. 20:114-118.

Raven, K.P., and R.H. Loeppert. 1996. Microwave digestion of fertilizers and soil amendments. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 27(18-20):2947-2971.

Risser, J.A., and D.E. Baker. 1990. Testing soils for toxic metals. In R.L. Westerman (ed.) Soil Testing and plant analysis. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Spec. Publ. 3. 3rd ed., Madison, WI. p. 275-298.

Soil Survey Staff. 1996. Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 42. Ver. 3.0 USDA-NRCS, U.S. Govt. Print. Office, Washington, DC.

U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1986b. Field Manual: Physical/Chemical Methods. SW-846 3rd Ed. Vol. 2. U.S. EPA, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington DC.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1986a. Lab manual. Physical/chemical methods. SW-846 3rd Ed. Vol. 1. Stion A. U.S. EPA, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington DC.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1992. Methods for the determination of metals in environmental samples. Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Wei, Yu-Ling, Huey_Meei Shyu, and Kun-Long Joehuang. 1997. Comparison of microwave vs. hot-plate digestion for nine real-world river sediments. J. Environ. Qual. 26:764-768.

Wilson, M.A, R. Burt, and C.W. Lee. 2006. Improved elemental recoveries in soils with boric acid following microwave total digestion. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 37:513-524.

Wilson, M.A., R. Burt, W.C. Lynn, and L.C. Klameth. 1997. Total Elemental Analysis Digestion Method Evaluation on Soils and Clays. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 28(6-8), 407-426.

Zhu, B., and M.A. Tabatabai. 1995. An alkaline oxidation method for determination of total arsenic and selenium in sewage sludges. J. Environ. Qual. 24:622-626.

Fractionation of Trace Elements in Soils

Andersen, M.K., K. Raulund-Rasmussen, H.C.B. Hansen, and B.W. Strobel. 2002. Distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in pairs of arable and afforested soils in Denmark. European J. Soil Sci. 53:491-502.

Bujdo�, M., J. Kubová, and V. Stre�ko. 2000. Problems of selenium fractionation in soils rich in organic matter. Analytica Chimica Acta. 408: 103–109.

Burt, R., M.A. Wilson, T.J. Keck, B.D. Dougherty, D.E. Strom, and J.A. Lindahl. 2003. Trace Element Speciation in Selected Smelter-Contaminated Soils in Anaconda and Deer Lodge Valley, Montana, USA. Adv. in Environ. Res. 8/1: 51-67.

Gruebel, K.A., J.A. Davis, and J.O. Leckie. 1988. The feasibility of using sequential extraction techniques for arsenic and selenium in soil sediments. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 52:390-397.

Ganguli, P., R.P. Mason, K. Abu-Saba, R. Anderson, and A. R. Flegal. 2000. Mercury Speciation in Drainage from the New Idria Mercury Mine, California. Environ. Monit. & Assess. 34:4773-4779.

Hernandez-Moreno, J. M., J.I. Rodrigues-Gonzalez, and M.M. Espino-Mesa. 2007. Evaluation of the BCR sequential extraction for trace elements in European reference volcanic soils. 58: 419–430.

Ilg, K., W. Wilcke, G. Safronov, F. Lang, A. Fokin, and M. Kaupenjohann. 2004. Heavy metal distribution in soil aggregates: a comparison of recent and archived aggregates from Russia. Geoderma. 123:153-162.

Jing, Y. D., Z. L. He, and X. E. Yang. 2008. Adsorption–Desorption Characteristics of Mercury in Paddy Soils of China. J. Environ. Qual. 37:680–688.

Kabala, C., and B.R. Singh. 2001. Fractionation and mobility of copper, lead, and zinc in soil profiles in the vicinity of a copper smelter. J. Environ. Qual. 30:485-492.

Keller, C., and J.C. Vedy. 1994. Distribution of copper and cadmium fractions in two forest soils. J. Environ. Qual. 23:987-999.

Krishnamurti, G.S.R., and R. Naidu. 2000. Speciation and phytoavailability of cadmium in selected surface soils of South America. Aust. J. Soil Res. 38:991-1004.

La Force, M.J. and S. Fendorf. 2000. Solid-Phase Iron characterization during common selective sequential extractions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 64:1608-1615.

Lilienfein, J., W. Wilcke, M.A. Ayarza, L. Vilela, S. Lima, and W. Zech. 2000. Chemical fractionation of phosphorus, sulphur, and molybdenum in Brazilian savannah Oxisols under different land use. Geoderma. 96:31-46.

Ma, Y.B. and N.C. Uren. 1998. Transformations of heavy metals added to soil-application of a new sequential extraction procedure. Geoderma. 84: 157-168.

Martley, E., B. Gulson, H. Louie, M. Wu, and P. Di. 2004. Metal partitioning in soil profiles in the vicinity of an industrial complex, New South Wales, Australia. Geochemistry, Exploration, and Environ. Anal. 4:171-179.

Miller, W.P., D.C. Martin, and L.W. Zelazny. 1986. Effect of sequence in extraction of trace metals from soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50:598-601.

Ramos, L., L.M. Hernandez, and M.J. Gonzalez. 1994. Sequential fractionation of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc in soils from or near Donana National Park. J. Environ. Qual. 23:50-57.

Schuster, P. F., J. B. Shanley , M. Marvin-Dipasquale, M. M. Reddy, G. R. Aiken, D. A. Roth, H. E. Taylor, D. P. Krabbenhoft, and J. F. DeWild. 2008. Mercury and organic carbon dynamics during runoff episodes from a Northeastern USA watershed. Water Air Soil Pollut . 187:89–108.

Tessier, A., P.G.C. Campbell, and M. Bisson. 1979. Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal. Chem. 51:844-851.