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soil clod

Warsaw

soil profile

WARSAW SERIES

LOCATION                   IN+IL MN OH WI

Established Series
Rev. PM-FWS-JDL
11/2021


The Warsaw series consists of well drained soils formed in loamy sediments and in the underlying gravelly outwash on outwash plains, terraces, kames, and valley trains. These are very deep soils that are deep or very deep to calcareous, stratified gravelly or very gravelly coarse sand and sand. Slope ranges from 0 to 15 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 1016 mm (40 inches), and mean annual temperature is about 11.1 degrees C (52 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy over sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Argiudolls

TYPICAL PEDON: Warsaw loam, on a 2 percent slope in a cultivated field at an elevation of 285 meters (935 feet) above mean sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 20 cm (8 inches); very dark brown (10YR 2/2) loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry; weak fine granular structure; friable; few worm holes and casts; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.

A--20 to 36 cm (8 to 14 inches); very dark brown (10YR 2/2) loam; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry; weak fine and medium granular structure; friable; neutral; clear wavy boundary. [Combined thickness of A horizon is 23 to 51 cm (9 to 20 inches).]

BA--36 to 43 cm (14 to 17 inches); brown (10YR 4/3) loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; 5 percent gravel; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. [0 to 15 cm (6 inches) thick]

Bt1--43 to 74 cm (17 to 29 inches); brown (7.5YR 4/4) sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; common distinct dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) clay films on faces of peds and on gravel; 10 percent fine gravel; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary. [25 to 46 cm (10 to 18 inches) thick]

Bt2--74 to 84 cm (29 to 33 inches); brown (7.5YR 4/4) loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many distinct dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) clay films on faces of peds and coatings on gravel; 10 percent fine gravel; slightly acid; clear irregular boundary. [Combined thickness of the Bt horizon is 25 to 66 cm (10 to 26 inches).]

2Bt3--84 to 89 cm (33 to 35 inches); very dark brown (10YR 2/2) gravelly sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm; common distinct black (10YR 2/1) organo-clay films on faces of peds and in linings of some voids; tongues of this material extend into the underlying gravel; 20 percent gravel; slightly acid; clear irregular boundary. [0 to 15 cm (6 inches) thick]

2C--89 to 152 cm (35 to 60 inches); brown (10YR 5/3) stratified very gravelly coarse sand, gravelly coarse sand, and sand; single grain; loose; 40 percent gravel; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Noble County, Indiana; about 3 miles north of Ligonier; 1440 feet east and 425 feet south of the northwest corner of sec. 2, T. 35 N., R. 8 E; USGS Topeka Topographic Quadrangle; lat. 41 degrees 31 minutes 21.27 seconds N. and long. 85 degrees 34 minutes 12.8 seconds W., NAD 27.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Depth to the base of soil development: 61 to 102 cm (24 to 40 inches)
Reaction: at least one horizon in the argillic is moderately acid or strongly acid
Particle-size control section: averages 17 to 30 percent clay

Ap or A horizon:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 2 or 3
Chroma: 1 to 3
Texture: silt loam, loam, or sandy loam
Rock fragment content: 0 to 14 percent gravel
Reaction: moderately acid to neutral

BA horizon, where present:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 3 or 4
Chroma: 2 to 4
Texture: loam, silt loam, or sandy loam
Rock fragment content: 0 to 14 percent gravel
Reaction: moderately acid to neutral

Bt horizon, upper part:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 3 or 4
Chroma: 2 to 4
Texture: loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, silt loam, or silty clay loam
Rock fragment content: 0 to 14 percent gravel
Reaction: strongly acid to slightly acid

Bt horizon, lower part:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 4 or 5
Chroma: 4
Texture: clay loam, sandy clay loam, or loam
Rock fragment content: 0 to 14 percent gravel
Reaction: strongly acid to slightly acid

2Bt horizon:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 2 to 4
Chroma: 2 to 4
Texture: gravelly clay loam or gravelly sandy clay loam
Rock fragment content: 15 to 25 percent gravel
Reaction: slightly acid to moderately alkaline; some pedons have carbonates

Tongues of the 2Bt horizon extend from 15 to 64 cm (6 to 25 inches) into the underlying gravel and coarse sand and range in distance apart from 30to more than 91 cm (12 to more than 36 inches).

2C horizon:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 5 to 7
Chroma: 2 to 6
Texture: gravelly, very gravelly, or extremely gravelly analogs of sand, coarse sand, loamy sand or loamy coarse sand; strata of coarse sand or sand make up less than 10 percent of the stratification
Rock fragment content: 15 to 78 percent gravel
Reaction: slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline; carbonates are present in most pedons

COMPETING SERIES: 

DakotaMantorville, and Trempealeau series. Dakota soils are more acidic than slightly alkaline in the lower part of the series control section. Mantorville soils have lamellae in the lower part of the series control section. Trempealeau soils do not have gravel in the lower part of the series control section.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Warsaw soils are on outwash plains, stream terraces, kames, and valley trains. Slope ranges from 0 to 15 percent. Warsaw soils formed in loamy sediments and in the underlying gravelly outwash over calcareous, stratified gravelly or very gravelly coarse sand and sand. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 762 to 1067 mm (30 to 42 inches). Mean annual temperature ranges from 8.9 to 11.7 degrees C (48 to 53 degrees F). Elevation is 177 to 466 meters (580 feet to 1530 feet) above mean sea level.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: The well drained Elston and Wea soils, the somewhat excessively drained Ade soils, the excessively drained Rodman soils, and the poorly drained or very poorly drained Westland soils are closely associated with the Warsaw soils. Elston soils have less clay in the subsoil and are on adjacent nearly level or gently sloping areas. Rodman soils are on the breaks and steeper ridges and contain more sand. Westland soils are in the lower flats and depressions. Ade soils are closely associated with Warsaw in areas where there are small sandy ridges and contain less clay throughout the profile. Warsaw soils grade to Wea soils where the solum is more than 102 cm (40 inches) thick on similar landscape positions.

DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Well drained. Potential for surface runoff is low or medium. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high in the solum and very high in the substratum. Permeability is moderate in the solum and very rapid in the substratum.

USE AND VEGETATION: Mostly used for growing crops. Principal crops are corn, soybeans, wheat, and hay. Some areas are used for green beans, potatoes, tomatoes, strawberries, and other vegetables and fruits. Irrigation is used on this soil in some areas. Native vegetation is tall prairie grasses.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: MLRAs 95B, 98, 104, 105, 108A, 108B, 110, 111A, 111B, 111C, 111D, 115A, and 115C in west-central and northern Indiana, western Ohio, eastern Illinois, southern Michigan, and southeastern Wisconsin. The series is of large extent.

SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (SSRO) RESPONSIBLE: AMHERST, MASSACHUSETTS

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Kosciusko County, Indiana, 1922.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Mollic epipedon: from the surface to a depth of 36 cm (14 inches) (Ap, A horizons).
Argillic horizon: from a depth of 43 to 89 cm (17 to 35 inches) (Bt1, Bt2, 2Bt3 horizons).
Lithologic discontinuity: at 84 cm (33 inches) (2Bt3 horizon).
 


National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.