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soil clod

Drummer

soil profile

DRUMMER SERIES

LOCATION                  IL+IN OH WI

Established Series
Rev. JBF-JDA-TJE
12/2015


The Drummer series consists of very deep, poorly drained soils formed in loess or other silty material and in the underlying loamy stratified outwash on nearly level or depressional parts of outwash plains, stream terraces, and till plains. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 940 mm (37 inches), and mean annual air temperature is about 11 degrees C (52 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Endoaquolls

TYPICAL PEDON: Drummer silty clay loam - on a south-facing concave slope with less than 1 percent gradient under grass at an elevation of about 218 meters (715 feet) above mean sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 18 cm (0 to 7 inches); black (10YR 2/1) silty clay loam, dark gray (10YR 4/1) dry; weak fine granular structure; firm; many fine roots; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.

A--18 to 36 cm (7 to 14 inches); black (10YR 2/1) silty clay loam, dark gray (10YR 4/1) dry; moderate fine subangular blocky structure parting to weak fine granular; firm; many fine and medium roots throughout; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. [Combined thickness of the A horizons is 25 to 56 cm (10 to 22 inches)].

BA--36 to 48 cm (14 to 19 inches); very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silty clay loam, gray (10YR 5/1) dry; moderate fine and medium subangular blocky structure; firm; many fine and medium roots; few fine faint very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2) masses of oxidized iron-manganese in the matrix; slightly acid; gradual smooth boundary. [0 to 20 cm (0 to 8 inches) thick]

Bg--48 to 64 cm (19 to 25 inches); dark gray (10YR 4/1) silty clay loam; moderate fine prismatic structure parting to moderate fine angular blocky; firm; many fine roots; common fine distinct and prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of oxidized iron in the matrix; many worm holes; neutral; gradual smooth boundary.

Btg1--64 to 81 cm (25 to 32 inches); grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty clay loam; weak fine and medium prismatic structure parting to moderate fine angular blocky; firm; many fine roots; common distinct dark gray (N 4/) clay films on faces of peds; many medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of oxidized iron-manganese in the matrix; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.

Btg2--81 to 104 cm (32 to 41 inches); gray (N 5/0) silty clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure parting to weak medium angular blocky; firm; few fine roots; few distinct dark gray (N 4/0) clay films on faces of peds; many medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of oxidized iron-manganese in the matrix; neutral; clear wavy boundary. [Combined thickness of the Bg horizon and Btg horizons is 51 to 119 cm (20 to 47 inches).]

2Btg3--104 to 119 cm (41 to 47 inches); gray (N 5/) loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; few distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1) clay films on faces of peds; common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of oxidized iron in the matrix; 4 percent fine gravel; neutral; abrupt wavy boundary. [10 to 25 cm (4 to 10 inches) thick]

2Cg--119 to 152 cm (47 to 60 inches); dark gray (10YR 4/1) stratified loam and sandy loam; massive; friable; many medium prominent olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) masses of oxidized iron-manganese in the matrix; many medium distinct gray (N 5/) iron depletions in the matrix; slightly alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Champaign County, Illinois; on the University of Illinois south farm 1 mile south of Urbana; 1,600 feet east and 300 feet north of the southwest corner of sec. 19, T. 19 N., R. 9 E.; USGS Urbana topographic quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 05 minutes 04.1 seconds N., long. 88 degrees 13 minutes 58.2 seconds W.; UTM Zone 16T 0394894 easting 4437861 northing; NAD 83.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Depth to the base of soil development: 102 to 165 cm (40 to 65 inches)
Depth to horizons with greater than 15 percent sand: 102 to 152 cm (40 to 60 inches)
Average clay content of the particle-size control section: 20 and 35 percent clay
Average fine and coarser sand content of the particle-size control section: less than 15 percent
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 25 to 61 cm (10 to 24 inches). It extends into the upper part of the B horizon in many pedons.
Depth to carbonates: greater than 102 cm (40 inches)

Ap, A, and/or AB horizons:
Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or neutral
Value: 2 to 3
Chroma: 0 to 2
Texture: silty clay loam or silt loam
Clay content: 20 to 35 percent
Reaction: moderately acid to slightly alkaline

Some pedons have an AB horizon rather than a BA horizon.

Bg, Btg, and/or BA horizon:
Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or neutral
Value: 4 or 5, but ranges to 3 in the upper part and to 6 in the lower part.
Chroma: 1 or 2, but ranges from 0 to 4.
Texture: silty clay loam or silt loam.
Clay content: 20 to 35 percent
Reaction: moderately acid to slightly alkaline

2Bg, 2Btg, and/or 2BCg horizon:
Hue: 7.5YR, 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or neutral
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 0 to 2
Texture: loam or silt loam, and most pedons contain strata of sandy loam, clay loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay loam, or fine sandy loam.
Clay content: 15 to 33 percent
Sand content: 15 to 55 percent
Rock fragment content: less than 7 percent
Reaction: slightly acid to moderately alkaline

2Cg and/or 2C horizon:
Hue: 7.5YR, 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or neutral
Value: 4 to 7
Chroma: 0 to 8
Texture: commonly stratified loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam, clay loam, silt loam, or silty clay loam. Some pedons have thin strata of loamy sand.
Clay content: 10 to 32 percent
Sand content: 15 to 80 percent
Rock fragment content: less than 15 percent
Reaction: neutral to moderately alkaline.

COMPETING SERIES: 

ChalmersChetombaDolbeeDunhamElpasoElviraGarwin, Gillet, GroveHartsburgMadeliaMarcusMascoutahMaxcreekMaxfieldOssianPattonPellaRushmoreSable, and Wacousta series. Chalmers, Maxcreek and Maxfield soils are less than 40 inches to subhorizons that average more than 15 percent sand. Chetomba, Madelia, Pella, Rushmore, and Wacousta soils contain carbonates at depths less than 40 inches. Dolbee and Elvira soils formed in silty alluvial sediments on flood plains and river terraces and are subject to flooding. Dolbee soils do not have stratification and typically have less sand in the substratum than the Drummer soils. Elvira soils have high concentrations of iron and manganese oxides in the solum. Dunham soils average more than 15 percent gravel in the lower part of the series control section. Elpaso, Gillett, and Grove soils have a well graded sand fraction in the lower part of the series control section. Garwin, Hartsburg, Marcus, Mascoutah, Ossian, and Sable soils average less than 15 percent sand in the lower part of the series control section. Patton soils average less than 25 percent sand in the lower part of the series control section, and the sand fraction is dominantly fine and very fine sand.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Drummer soils are on nearly level or depressional parts of outwash plains, stream terraces, and till plains of Wisconsinan Age. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Drummer soils formed in 102 to 152 cm (40 to 60 inches) of loess or other silty material and in the underlying loamy stratified outwash. Mean annual air temperature ranges from 8 to 12 degrees C (46 to 54 degrees F); mean annual precipitation ranges from 737 to 1092 mm (29 to 43 inches), frost free days range from 140 to 200 days, and the elevation ranges from 150 to 311 meters (492 to 1020 feet) above mean sea level.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: 

BlackberryBrentonCatlinClareDanaElburnFlanaganLisbonPlanoProctorRaubSaybrook, and Sidell soils. The associated soils are on higher positions on the landform. The somewhat poorly drained Elburn, moderately well drained Blackberry, and well drained Plano soils form a drainage sequence with Drummer soils. The somewhat poorly drained Brenton, moderately well drained Clare and well drained Proctor soils have a thinner mantle of loess. The moderately well drained Catlin, Dana, and Saybrook soils, the somewhat poorly drained Flanagan, Lisbon, and Raub soils, and the well drained Sidell soils formed in loess and in the underlying loamy till.

DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Poorly drained. In drained conditions, an apparent seasonal high water table is 15 cm (0.5 foot) above the surface to 31 cm (1.0 foot) below the surface at some time between January and May in most years. In undrained conditions, an apparent seasonal high water table is 15 cm (0.5 foot) above the surface to 15 cm (0.5 foot) below the surface at some time between November and June in most years. The potential for surface runoff is negligible to low. Water ponds on these soils for brief periods during the spring. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high to high (4.23 to 14.11 micrometers per second). Permeability is moderate.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are cropped. Corn and soybeans are the principal crops. Some areas are used for growing small grain or meadow. Native vegetation is hydrophytic grasses, reeds, and sedges.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Northern and central Illinois, northwestern Indiana, southwestern Ohio and southeastern Wisconsin. The extent is large in MLRAs 95B, 108, 110, 111, 114, and 115; more than 500,000 acres have been correlated in Illinois to date.

MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Indianapolis, Indiana.

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Ford County, Illinois, 1929.

REMARKS: SDJR - MLRA 108A - Drummer silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes project noted gravelly and sandy substratum phases. These soils are identified for study as part of future MLRA update activities. These soils will be evaluated to determine if they need to be re-correlated to different series or whether new series will need to be developed.

Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
mollic epipedon - the zone from the surface to a depth of 48 cm (19 inches) (Ap, A, and BA horizons);
cambic horizon - the zone from approximately 48 to 119 cm (19 to 47 inches) (Bg, Btg1, Btg2, and 2Btg3 horizons);
lithologic discontinuity - at a depth of 104 cm (41 inches) (contact between the Btg2 and 2Btg3 horizons);
aquic conditions - redoximorphic features present in the zone from approximately 36 to 152 cm (14 to 60 inches) (BA, Bg, Btg1, Btg2, 2Btg3, and 2Cg horizons);
aquic moisture regime; mesic temperature regime.

ADDITIONAL DATA: SSIR No. 19, pp. 92-109. University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 665, Profile No. 29.
 


National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.