NRCS Conservation Programs

Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program (WHIP)

The Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program (WHIP) is a voluntary program for conservation-minded landowners who want to develop and improve wildlife habitat on agricultural land, non-industrial private forest land, and Tribal land. The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) administers WHIP to provide both technical assistance and up to 75 percent cost-share assistance to establish and improve fish & wildlife habitat.

The Agricultural Act of 2014 (enacted on February 7, 2014) moved authority for WHIP to the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). NRCS continues to support WHIP contracts entered into prior to passage of the Agricultural Act of 2014 using the rules and policy in effect at the time of contract obligations.

To learn more see EQIP -- And -- WHIP

For contract counts, contract acres, and contract obligations (as opposed to total obligations, as in FMMI), see Financial Assistance Program Dashboard

Financial Information: Total Obligations | Technical Assistance | Financial Assistance | Reimbursable
Conservation Practice Implementation Reports: by State | by State and Conservation Practices related to: Fish & Wildlife Habitat


Financial Information

The Financial Information section presents data from the USDA Office of the Chief Financial Officer's Financial Management Modernization Initiative (FMMI) system and its predecessor, the Foundation Financial Information System (FFIS). The Financial Information presented here is Total Obligations which the Government Accountability Office defines as binding agreements (orders placed, contracts awarded, services rendered, etc.) that will result in outlays, immediately or in the future. Before obligations can be incurred, budgetary resources must be made available by Congress. The obligations displayed for each year are the total obligations reported as of the end of each fiscal year. Subsequent adjustments after the close of the fiscal year are not included.

There are three categories of Total Obligations presented below:

  • Technical Assistance (TA) Obligations refer to the scientific expertise, natural resource data, tools, and technology that USDA NRCS personnel provide to help producers, landowners, and communities develop conservation plans and implement conservation practices to solve natural resource problems at the field, operation, or larger landscape scales. NRCS is the lead agency for providing technical assistance for USDA.
  • Financial Assistance (FA) Obligations refer to the commitment of funds to contracts for payments that will be made to program participants for implementing conservation practices, which can provide both on-site and off-site conservation benefits.
  • Reimbursable funds can be used to provide Technical or Financial Assistance, but are received from sources other than NRCS. They can also be transfers from or agreements with other Federal agencies.

Total Obligations, by Fiscal Year and Type
WHIP Total Obligations, by Fiscal Year
In thousands of dollars
Division 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Alabama $1,452.3
$3,471.1
$4,517.2
$3,605.0
$5,735.0
$2,141.4
$922.3
$543.2
$135.4
$16.7



Alaska $3,027.4
$3,103.0
$3,657.3
$302.2
$4,707.0
$138.2
$761.3
$165.2
$108.5
$93.9
$12.1
$20.0

Arizona $1,500.6
$615.7
$975.8
$566.1
$96.5
$13.8
$142.4
$75.9
$12.6




Arkansas $1,072.2
$4,091.2
$1,145.4
$2,969.4
$2,989.8
$70.9
$523.6
$164.3
$425.8
$417.6
$90.9
$90.7
$1.1
California $2,455.2
$2,856.3
$4,378.5
$588.3
$1,548.6
$567.3
$432.3
$620.7
$436.4
$321.8
$89.0
$86.5
$16.9
Caribbean
$8.2
$130.7

$22.3
$0.3
$15.6
$16.2
$11.0
$8.5



Colorado $1,120.8
$790.6
$687.8
$924.7
$290.6
$95.0
$42.0
$71.8
$19.2




Connecticut $2,145.3
$1,293.9
$1,417.9
$920.4
$828.2
$253.3
$480.2
$458.0
$203.7
$192.0
$35.2
$44.0
$7.7
Delaware $467.1
$318.0
$144.2
$62.3
$60.4
$6.5
$9.5
$18.2
$19.1


$12.0

Florida $1,862.6
$1,668.1
$1,070.5
$1,124.0
$845.6
$194.9
$441.7
$431.1
$207.3
$186.0
$13.4
$24.0

Georgia $1,344.8
$2,130.5
$7,460.2
$6,459.7
$6,415.7
$576.0
$1,060.8
$1,110.6
$219.6
$17.4

$34.1

Hawaii/Pacific $1,043.2
$319.6
$147.4
$179.2
$118.2
$14.2
$81.7
$33.4
$10.3




Idaho $924.7
$395.3
$720.7
$203.2
$1,345.5
$148.0
$162.5
$28.8
$80.2
$22.5
$0.1
$40.0

Illinois $307.6
$297.8
$385.0
$122.0
$155.8
$18.0
$199.4
$-37.4
$56.0
$68.8
$25.0
$23.8
$15.8
Indiana $1,310.8
$1,035.3
$825.2
$5,923.9
$203.2
$117.9
$115.2
$35.7
$22.9
$-2.9
$0.5


Iowa $957.7
$992.1
$536.4
$290.5
$571.0
$14.2
$25.7
$36.6
$12.6




Kansas $1,283.3
$2,496.0
$1,952.3
$976.9
$1,742.6
$96.6
$225.7
$75.9
$60.8
$2.9
$0.1
$1.3

Kentucky $1,059.5
$1,320.2
$1,000.1
$126.8
$158.8
$139.4
$83.4
$119.6
$21.5
$31.2



Louisiana $1,055.7
$4,227.3
$2,595.0
$1,051.4
$917.4
$74.2
$8.1
$17.2
$10.9
$28.1
$63.4
$0.6
$38.1
Maine $890.1
$2,694.0
$3,017.0
$399.7
$596.9
$510.4
$544.9
$409.4
$1.1
$139.0

$31.3
$4.3
Maryland $387.6
$262.7
$312.6
$124.7
$376.9
$24.1
$131.7
$85.3
$11.3
$13.7



Massachusetts $1,976.5
$1,054.8
$1,587.0
$442.8
$358.2
$82.0
$99.4
$150.0
$96.6
$69.4
$60.1
$40.3
$32.0
Michigan $1,047.7
$1,921.6
$857.1
$573.1
$408.0
$51.2
$98.4
$56.4
$57.4
$48.8

$43.6
$6.1
Minnesota $1,581.6
$828.6
$603.6
$152.6
$839.4
$49.2
$247.2
$164.3
$82.0
$49.0



Mississippi $1,425.3
$3,730.6
$2,000.7
$1,592.8
$1,904.3
$266.0
$310.5
$111.6
$26.9
$5.3



Missouri $1,450.4
$3,378.7
$721.7
$398.8
$791.5
$61.5
$152.1
$56.8
$134.4
$108.5
$54.1
$47.5
$5.0
Montana $770.6
$1,430.1
$384.5
$399.5
$560.3
$32.6
$161.2
$100.2
$42.7
$7.9



Nebraska $1,482.9
$1,021.7
$673.8
$386.6
$259.2
$22.3
$13.0
$1.3
$54.0




Nevada $669.5
$982.1
$778.7
$592.3
$217.1
$127.9
$129.9
$209.6
$122.2
$107.5
$9.7
$10.0

New Hampshire $2,531.4
$1,310.4
$1,251.8
$819.5
$371.1
$92.6
$338.9
$-1.9
$150.4
$132.5
$19.8
$29.7

New Jersey $1,097.2
$582.7
$497.5
$370.0
$412.0
$108.0
$107.2
$217.1
$192.0
$248.4
$124.9
$100.0
$26.1
New Mexico $1,128.0
$952.9
$1,008.2
$836.9
$744.8
$169.6
$131.6
$-13.0
$90.7
$1.1
$12.0


New York $1,107.8
$1,285.5
$1,309.8
$358.6
$532.5
$316.2
$527.0
$34.2
$282.7
$120.6
$97.3
$56.8
$-0.4
North Carolina $1,168.6
$823.6
$1,543.2
$134.8
$139.5
$11.0
$270.2
$182.8
$65.8
$10.0



North Dakota $1,181.4
$724.6
$1,176.5
$286.9
$234.9
$4.0
$11.7
$4.6
$85.8
$43.0



Ohio $923.8
$289.1
$449.7
$49.9
$81.8
$13.7
$1.0
$1.2
$0.7




Oklahoma $1,700.5
$1,123.1
$420.1
$865.5
$264.7
$30.2
$339.8
$197.0
$133.0
$1.4
$10.3
$48.2
$-18.4
Oregon $1,890.1
$1,208.2
$1,286.1
$1,322.7
$1,248.3
$67.8
$73.2
$21.4
$0.9
$48.9
$33.5
$25.7

Pennsylvania $793.5
$1,064.2
$980.6
$1,153.7
$2,733.1
$80.7
$238.7
$47.4
$125.2
$115.3
$46.3
$48.2
$46.6
Rhode Island $1,577.7
$981.3
$599.6
$390.3
$337.0
$32.8
$196.5
$137.7
$28.6
$289.8
$51.8
$40.0
$10.0
South Carolina $1,836.5
$2,681.1
$3,315.2
$455.8
$630.5
$137.6
$414.2
$8.0
$285.2
$103.6
$158.8
$146.4

South Dakota $1,100.0
$779.1
$1,049.2
$2,232.8
$4,744.1
$116.9
$341.9
$244.1
$237.0
$173.4
$16.0
$18.3

Tennessee $989.3
$1,079.7
$1,726.7
$319.6
$1,611.8
$350.2
$175.7
$73.6
$25.8
$4.7



Texas $4,645.2
$8,834.1
$11,834.8
$647.9
$8,171.7
$1,361.6
$1,362.4
$1,128.5
$985.7
$954.4
$130.8
$79.8
$32.5
Utah $813.5
$315.8
$556.6
$255.7
$171.8
$9.8
$0.8
$41.7
$10.3
$28.9

$1.5

Vermont $1,377.1
$1,295.7
$1,527.3
$217.0
$293.7
$205.4
$739.0
$350.4
$86.1
$60.2
$0.4

$1.9
Virginia $865.6
$865.9
$984.1
$324.5
$364.1
$72.5
$110.1
$139.9
$94.2
$6.9



Washington $1,589.4
$1,309.6
$544.8
$978.9
$588.6
$50.6
$287.7
$99.6
$66.1
$369.4
$26.5
$129.1
$8.4
West Virginia $1,569.3
$1,115.7
$1,273.2
$299.6
$1,065.7
$314.7
$798.4
$573.8
$606.2
$725.2
$180.0
$142.9
$1.6
Wisconsin $1,274.2
$779.7
$494.8
$151.5
$136.7
$7.2
$0.9
$0.7
$17.5




Wyoming $874.1
$678.3
$834.3
$1,039.3
$318.8
$23.6
$224.7
$45.7
$50.9
$8.0
$6.1


Other $4,635.6
$4,590.2
$4,523.4
$2,389.7
$3,418.1
$156.8
$79.9
$79.4
$65.8
$0.7
$-0.4

$39.8
Total $72,742.9
$83,405.9
$83,872.0
$47,360.4
$63,679.3
$9,641.0
$14,393.0
$8,943.8
$6,388.6
$5,400.0
$1,367.7
$1,416.3
$275.1
Notes:
• Data Source: USDA-NRCS, 2012-2021 data from Financial Management Modernization Initiative (FMMI);
2009-2011 data from Foundation Financial Information System (FFIS).
• Caribbean includes Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands.
• Hawaii/Pacific includes Hawaii and the Pacific Basin.
• Other indicates Headquarters, Regional, or other non-State divisions.
• Prior to the February 7, 2014 enactment of the Agricultural Act of 2014, WHIP was authorized to obligate funds to new contracts. Upon enactment, the 2014 Act authorized the use of unobligated WHIP funds remaining from 2009 through 2013 to complete implementation of contracts entered into prior to the date of enactment, including the provision of technical assistance.
• Negative numbers reflect fund adjustments made throughout the year.
• Totals may not exactly match sum over divisions due to rounding.

WHIP Technical Assistance Obligations,
by Fiscal Year
In thousands of dollars
Division 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Alabama $226.3
$550.7
$872.3
$503.4
$707.1
$921.1
$893.8
$535.3
$135.4
$16.7



Alaska $947.5
$489.9
$556.1
$302.2
$668.1
$138.2
$737.9
$164.6
$107.3
$93.9
$12.1
$20.0

Arizona $251.0
$297.2
$317.2
$153.3
$96.5
$13.8
$142.4
$75.3
$10.7




Arkansas $241.6
$657.6
$414.5
$422.0
$478.0
$68.5
$483.9
$160.8
$422.9
$417.6
$90.9
$81.9
$1.1
California $559.7
$556.6
$777.3
$313.2
$704.5
$544.7
$431.6
$607.5
$416.9
$321.8
$89.0
$86.5
$16.9
Caribbean

$26.8

$2.4
$0.3
$14.2
$16.2
$11.0
$8.5



Colorado $221.9
$244.6
$266.5
$169.7
$196.4
$95.0
$38.7
$48.8
$19.1




Connecticut $590.2
$283.8
$320.3
$307.4
$269.1
$245.9
$463.6
$429.1
$198.3
$191.5
$35.2
$44.0
$7.7
Delaware $148.3
$87.6
$79.6
$52.4
$51.2
$6.5
$9.5
$18.2
$19.1


$12.0

Florida $297.3
$329.8
$407.9
$234.0
$270.8
$189.1
$433.3
$431.0
$204.2
$186.0
$13.4
$24.0

Georgia $221.5
$370.2
$1,033.9
$707.1
$2,112.2
$573.4
$896.8
$1,040.3
$216.5


$34.1

Hawaii/Pacific $507.7
$158.8
$132.1
$179.2
$118.2
$14.0
$81.7
$33.4
$10.3




Idaho $162.5
$174.4
$155.6
$119.9
$355.8
$145.1
$108.1
$28.2
$71.0
$17.9
$0.1
$40.0

Illinois $170.9
$89.4
$119.0
$72.3
$155.8
$18.0
$199.4
$-37.4
$54.0
$68.8
$25.0
$23.8
$15.8
Indiana $208.9
$270.2
$309.9
$440.5
$202.3
$116.9
$113.8
$35.6
$22.9
$-2.9
$0.5


Iowa $168.3
$286.4
$261.7
$127.5
$142.0
$7.0
$3.0
$36.6
$12.6




Kansas $284.4
$460.1
$471.8
$235.8
$334.3
$81.1
$211.3
$65.3
$57.0
$2.9
$0.1
$1.3

Kentucky $177.7
$295.5
$270.4
$123.6
$158.8
$138.9
$82.9
$119.6
$21.5
$31.2



Louisiana $185.0
$668.0
$705.8
$259.3
$441.5
$74.2
$4.6
$6.5
$0.7
$28.0
$63.4
$0.6
$38.1
Maine $410.4
$523.0
$564.3
$207.1
$215.0
$212.1
$504.0
$394.5
$0.3
$139.0

$31.3
$4.3
Maryland $81.6
$128.2
$117.8
$68.2
$83.8
$24.1
$129.5
$85.1
$11.3
$13.7



Massachusetts $573.3
$262.7
$333.7
$248.4
$198.1
$27.8
$95.4
$124.4
$96.6
$69.4
$43.1
$40.0
$32.0
Michigan $209.7
$284.6
$343.2
$168.5
$268.5
$36.4
$97.6
$50.2
$57.0
$48.8

$43.6
$6.1
Minnesota $580.1
$238.4
$234.8
$152.6
$189.6
$33.6
$247.1
$164.0
$80.3
$49.0



Mississippi $267.9
$588.6
$438.3
$317.5
$311.4
$253.4
$304.8
$111.6
$26.7
$5.3



Missouri $244.5
$545.7
$364.0
$260.5
$257.9
$61.3
$152.1
$56.6
$134.0
$108.5
$54.1
$47.5
$5.0
Montana $229.0
$292.4
$181.4
$143.2
$124.5
$17.7
$121.4
$99.3
$41.3
$7.9



Nebraska $261.5
$277.1
$272.0
$154.4
$259.2
$22.0
$4.0
$1.3
$54.0




Nevada $196.2
$183.1
$154.7
$121.2
$61.0
$127.9
$129.9
$209.6
$121.3
$107.0
$9.7
$10.0

New Hampshire $791.9
$280.0
$380.7
$353.3
$205.8
$83.8
$338.9
$-8.3
$148.9
$131.5
$19.8
$29.7

New Jersey $379.3
$165.7
$196.6
$162.6
$301.4
$107.6
$98.0
$206.2
$191.3
$248.4
$124.9
$100.0
$26.1
New Mexico $255.9
$194.8
$228.4
$188.9
$195.8
$169.6
$128.0
$-13.6
$90.5
$1.1
$12.0


New York $243.2
$217.3
$200.5
$147.7
$106.8
$111.3
$526.9
$32.4
$272.9
$119.6
$97.3
$56.5
$-0.4
North Carolina $211.5
$172.9
$296.6
$111.8
$110.2
$8.9
$269.5
$182.5
$65.6
$10.0



North Dakota $233.6
$211.1
$330.9
$115.9
$195.4
$2.1
$3.5
$1.0
$85.8
$43.0



Ohio $141.8
$96.7
$213.1
$49.9
$81.8
$12.8
$1.0
$1.2
$0.7




Oklahoma $329.6
$277.2
$235.0
$283.3
$264.7
$30.2
$321.6
$172.8
$133.0
$1.4
$10.3
$48.2
$-18.4
Oregon $388.8
$313.4
$303.0
$280.7
$234.2
$57.3
$73.2
$21.4
$0.9
$48.9
$33.5
$25.7

Pennsylvania $128.8
$240.1
$155.9
$181.7
$444.5
$53.2
$236.5
$46.5
$121.7
$115.1
$46.3
$48.1
$46.6
Rhode Island $778.7
$238.2
$206.5
$250.8
$215.5
$24.4
$196.0
$137.2
$27.6
$289.8
$51.8
$40.0
$10.0
South Carolina $415.0
$434.4
$619.1
$216.5
$456.6
$133.9
$381.0
$2.3
$276.7
$103.6
$157.6
$146.4

South Dakota $259.1
$211.6
$240.0
$230.2
$393.3
$70.8
$240.4
$226.5
$210.2
$171.2
$15.8
$18.3

Tennessee $185.6
$233.4
$408.6
$126.5
$294.7
$311.4
$136.5
$72.1
$25.8
$4.7



Texas $686.7
$1,353.5
$2,000.2
$435.7
$1,032.5
$1,014.1
$1,049.5
$936.2
$942.9
$915.6
$130.8
$79.8
$32.5
Utah $203.6
$100.1
$146.9
$86.4
$85.1
$9.8
$0.8
$41.7
$10.3
$28.9

$1.5

Vermont $477.0
$267.3
$471.3
$217.0
$213.0
$150.8
$727.5
$346.4
$79.2
$59.3
$0.4

$1.9
Virginia $191.4
$210.4
$251.2
$128.3
$338.8
$72.2
$110.0
$138.1
$93.8
$6.9



Washington $298.9
$202.7
$172.1
$230.3
$262.9
$50.3
$134.5
$49.2
$65.7
$364.6
$23.4
$128.7
$8.4
West Virginia $359.6
$256.2
$342.2
$201.8
$331.6
$209.7
$791.6
$572.0
$605.0
$724.2
$180.0
$142.9
$1.6
Wisconsin $209.0
$260.2
$221.5
$127.6
$106.0
$7.2
$0.9
$0.7
$17.5




Wyoming $167.3
$202.5
$245.1
$194.1
$318.8
$23.6
$224.7
$45.7
$50.9
$8.0
$6.1


Other $4,635.6
$4,590.2
$4,523.4
$2,381.5
$3,418.1
$156.8
$79.9
$79.4
$65.8
$0.7
$-0.4

$39.8
Total $20,596.9
$20,324.1
$22,891.6
$13,266.8
$19,041.5
$7,080.0
$13,206.5
$8,401.1
$6,216.7
$5,327.0
$1,346.2
$1,406.4
$275.1
Notes:
• Data Source: USDA-NRCS, 2012-2021 data from Financial Management Modernization Initiative (FMMI);
2009-2011 data from Foundation Financial Information System (FFIS).
• Caribbean includes Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands.
• Hawaii/Pacific includes Hawaii and the Pacific Basin.
• Other indicates Headquarters, Regional, or other non-State divisions.
• Prior to the February 7, 2014 enactment of the Agricultural Act of 2014, WHIP was authorized to obligate funds to new contracts. Upon enactment, the 2014 Act authorized the use of unobligated WHIP funds remaining from 2009 through 2013 to complete implementation of contracts entered into prior to the date of enactment, including the provision of technical assistance.
• Negative numbers reflect fund adjustments made throughout the year.
• Totals may not exactly match sum over divisions due to rounding.

WHIP Financial Assistance Obligations,
by Fiscal Year
In thousands of dollars
Division 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Alabama $1,226.0
$2,920.4
$3,644.9
$3,101.6
$5,027.9
$1,220.3
$28.6
$7.9





Alaska $2,079.9
$2,613.1
$3,101.2

$4,038.9

$23.4
$0.6
$1.1




Arizona $1,249.6
$318.5
$658.6
$412.8



$0.6
$1.9




Arkansas $830.6
$3,433.6
$730.9
$2,555.7
$2,511.8
$2.4
$39.7
$3.5
$2.9


$8.8

California $1,895.5
$2,299.7
$3,601.2
$275.1
$844.1
$22.6
$0.7
$13.1
$19.5




Caribbean
$8.2
$103.9

$19.9

$1.4






Colorado $898.9
$546.1
$421.3
$755.0
$94.2

$3.4
$23.0
$0.1




Connecticut $1,555.1
$1,010.1
$1,097.5
$613.0
$559.1
$7.4
$16.6
$28.9
$5.4
$0.5



Delaware $318.8
$230.5
$64.7
$9.9
$9.2








Florida $1,565.3
$1,338.3
$662.6
$890.0
$574.8
$5.8
$8.3
$0.1
$3.1




Georgia $1,123.3
$1,760.4
$6,426.3
$5,752.6
$4,303.5
$2.6
$164.0
$70.4
$3.1
$17.4



Hawaii/Pacific $535.5
$160.8
$15.4


$0.2







Idaho $762.2
$220.9
$565.1
$83.3
$989.7
$2.9
$54.4
$0.6
$9.3
$4.6



Illinois $136.7
$208.4
$266.1
$49.7




$2.0




Indiana $1,101.8
$737.1
$513.0
$5,481.4
$0.9
$1.0
$1.4






Iowa $789.3
$705.7
$274.7
$163.1
$429.0
$7.2
$22.6






Kansas $998.9
$2,035.9
$1,480.4
$741.2
$1,408.3
$15.5
$14.4
$10.6
$3.8




Kentucky $881.8
$1,024.7
$729.7
$3.3

$0.4
$0.4






Louisiana $870.8
$3,559.3
$1,889.2
$792.2
$475.9

$3.5
$10.7
$10.2
$0.1



Maine $479.8
$2,171.0
$2,452.7
$192.6
$381.9
$298.3
$40.9
$14.9
$0.7




Maryland $306.0
$134.5
$194.9
$56.6
$293.1

$2.3
$0.3





Massachusetts $1,403.2
$792.1
$1,253.3
$194.4
$160.1
$54.2
$4.0
$25.6


$17.0
$0.3

Michigan $837.9
$1,223.7
$398.2
$154.0

$0.7
$0.8
$6.2
$0.3




Minnesota $1,001.6
$590.2
$360.1

$649.8
$0.5

$0.2
$1.7




Mississippi $1,157.4
$3,141.9
$1,562.4
$1,275.3
$1,592.9
$12.6
$5.7

$0.2




Missouri $1,205.9
$2,833.0
$357.7
$138.3
$533.6
$0.2

$0.1
$0.4




Montana $541.6
$1,137.6
$203.2
$256.3
$435.8
$14.8
$39.9
$0.9
$1.4




Nebraska $1,221.4
$744.6
$401.8
$232.2

$0.2
$9.0






Nevada $473.3
$799.0
$624.0
$471.1
$156.1


$0.1
$0.9
$0.5



New Hampshire $1,739.5
$1,030.5
$871.2
$466.2
$165.3
$8.8

$6.4
$1.5
$1.0



New Jersey $717.9
$417.1
$300.9
$207.4
$110.6
$0.4
$9.2
$10.9
$0.7




New Mexico $872.1
$758.2
$779.8
$648.0
$549.0

$3.6
$0.7
$0.2




New York $864.6
$1,036.5
$940.9
$53.7
$399.2
$204.9
$0.1
$1.8
$9.7
$1.0

$0.3

North Carolina $957.1
$650.7
$1,246.6
$23.0
$29.3
$2.1
$0.7
$0.3
$0.2




North Dakota $947.8
$513.4
$845.5
$171.1
$39.5
$1.9
$8.1
$3.5





Ohio $782.1
$187.8
$185.8


$0.9







Oklahoma $1,370.9
$845.9
$185.1
$582.2

$-0.1
$18.2
$24.2





Oregon $1,501.2
$894.8
$983.1
$1,042.0
$1,014.1
$10.5







Pennsylvania $664.7
$822.2
$771.2
$970.5
$2,288.6
$27.5
$2.2
$0.9
$3.5
$0.2

$0.1

Rhode Island $799.0
$743.2
$393.1
$139.5
$121.5
$8.4
$0.5
$0.5
$1.0




South Carolina $1,421.4
$2,246.8
$2,696.1
$239.4
$173.9
$3.8
$33.3
$5.7
$8.4

$1.2


South Dakota $841.0
$567.6
$809.2
$2,002.6
$4,350.8
$46.1
$101.5
$17.6
$26.8
$2.2
$0.2


Tennessee $803.7
$846.3
$1,318.2
$193.0
$1,317.1
$38.8
$39.2
$1.5





Texas $3,958.5
$7,480.7
$9,834.6
$212.2
$7,139.2
$347.4
$312.9
$192.4
$42.8
$38.8



Utah $609.9
$215.6
$409.7
$169.3
$86.7








Vermont $900.0
$1,028.4
$1,056.0

$80.7
$54.6
$11.4
$3.9
$6.8
$0.9



Virginia $674.3
$655.4
$732.9
$196.1
$25.3
$0.3
$0.1
$1.8
$0.4




Washington $1,290.6
$1,106.9
$372.8
$748.6
$325.7
$0.3
$153.2
$50.4
$0.4
$4.8
$3.1
$0.4

West Virginia $1,209.6
$859.5
$931.1
$97.8
$734.1
$105.1
$6.8
$1.8
$1.2
$1.0



Wisconsin $1,065.2
$519.6
$273.3
$24.0
$30.7








Wyoming $706.8
$475.7
$589.2
$845.2









Total $52,146.0
$62,602.1
$60,580.9
$33,682.2
$44,471.8
$2,531.7
$1,186.5
$542.6
$171.8
$73.0
$21.5
$9.9

Notes:
• Data Source: USDA-NRCS, 2012-2021 data from Financial Management Modernization Initiative (FMMI);
2009-2011 data from Foundation Financial Information System (FFIS).
• Caribbean includes Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands.
• Hawaii/Pacific includes Hawaii and the Pacific Basin.
• Prior to the February 7, 2014 enactment of the Agricultural Act of 2014, WHIP was authorized to obligate funds to new contracts. Upon enactment, the 2014 Act authorized the use of unobligated WHIP funds remaining from 2009 through 2013 to complete implementation of contracts entered into prior to the date of enactment, including the provision of technical assistance.
• Negative numbers reflect fund adjustments made throughout the year.
• Totals may not exactly match sum over divisions due to rounding.

WHIP Reimbursable Obligations,
by Fiscal Year
In thousands of dollars
Division 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Arkansas


$-8.3









Indiana
$28.0
$2.3
$2.0









Michigan
$413.4
$115.7
$250.6
$139.5
$14.1







Minnesota

$8.7


$15.1







New York
$31.6
$168.5
$157.2
$26.5








Ohio
$4.6
$50.9










Pennsylvania
$2.0
$53.5
$1.5









Other


$8.3









Total
$479.6
$399.5
$411.3
$166.0
$29.3







Notes:
• Data Source: USDA-NRCS, 2012-2021 data from Financial Management Modernization Initiative (FMMI);
2009-2011 data from Foundation Financial Information System (FFIS).
• Other indicates Headquarters, Regional, or other non-State divisions.
• Prior to the February 7, 2014 enactment of the Agricultural Act of 2014, WHIP was authorized to obligate funds to new contracts. Upon enactment, the 2014 Act authorized the use of unobligated WHIP funds remaining from 2009 through 2013 to complete implementation of contracts entered into prior to the date of enactment, including the provision of technical assistance.
• Negative numbers reflect fund adjustments made throughout the year.
• Totals may not exactly match sum over divisions due to rounding.

Conservation Practice Implementation

Conservation practices are planned and applied at the land unit level. The land unit is the smallest unit of land that has a permanent or contiguous boundary, a common land cover and land management, and a common owner or a common producer. The following tables include data for the fiscal years since enactment of the 2008 Food, Conservation, and Energy Act (Farm Bill) in 2009.

This RCA release uses an updated field definition. Heretofore the National Planning and Agreements Database (NPAD) Land Unit Id was used to represent fields wherever estimates of unique acres treated were required. This identifier is found in the planning land unit database layer. However, since conservation plans are often updated as producersí conservation decisions evolve over time, there can be multiple land unit identifiers associated with the same field in NPAD. This can result in overestimating the number of fields and the associated unique acres. The Resource Analytics Lab has used GIS to develop a shape based algorithm to eliminate the overcounting of fields by selecting the single best shape out of the multiple shape based identifiers associated with the same field.

As conservation practices are measured in different units (acres, feet, square feet, etc.), the challenge for reporting performance at various levels is how to aggregate across practices. Although practices may affect resources beyond the land unit boundary, or be applied only on part of the land unit, the land unit does provide a common metric to aggregate over practices since each applied practice is associated with a specific land unit. Analysis of the data reveals that most practices are measured in acres and most of the practice applied amounts match the land unit acres of the field on which the practice was applied. Therefore, land unit acreage is the metric on which the acres of land receiving conservation treatment are calculated.

The data presented in this section reflect the fiscal year in which conservation practices were applied, which can occur at any point during the duration of the WHIP contract. Totals presented here are not comparable to program enrollment acres or contract acres.

Land Unit Acres Receiving Conservation

The following table summarizes land unit acres by fiscal year. Here, land unit acres are counted once when the program has been used to apply one or more practices on that land unit in a given fiscal year. Therefore, land unit acres may be counted multiple times across fiscal years.

Land Unit Acres Receiving Conservation (including practice count),
by Fiscal Year
WHIP Practices
State 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count
Alabama 57,440
847
34,518
910
82,914
1,198
87,420
1,339
74,161
1,200
125,938
2,048
69,751
743
17,820
145
1,579
26
2,210
22




91
3
Alaska 6,628
26
1,437
30
43,905
68
32,829
75
25,411
28
45,751
107
82,145
98
43,814
51
58,894
27
53,117
21
33,209
5




Arizona 290,539
84
451,211
70
355,061
65
41,419
52
198,021
39
47,465
37
5,115
7
9,034
12
442
3








Arkansas 24,695
700
25,083
646
74,811
1,316
34,651
598
41,439
767
43,759
771
24,508
368
16,393
225
9,894
93
2,852
39
1,025
17
471
4


California 24,590
224
27,009
243
55,133
217
60,299
456
35,936
444
59,236
401
22,705
165
12,023
104
4,570
32
6,037
26
961
25
227
8
120
4
Caribbean



5
3
98
23
128
10
193
11
92
20
23
2




59
2




Colorado 137,758
319
52,807
310
58,503
193
42,734
189
13,181
277
11,666
61
9,755
66
1,456
40
366
10








Connecticut 1,788
362
3,024
583
2,459
570
2,312
570
1,820
329
1,682
321
1,205
221
927
174
331
62
131
11
71
11
114
3
1
1
Delaware 2,972
58
4,233
95
4,435
46
915
28
282
10
1,252
16
177
5
71
1
93
7
22
6






Florida 18,450
285
41,451
577
62,845
737
42,805
681
31,886
697
32,285
815
21,853
432
11,523
190
2,746
66
873
44
90
5




Georgia 10,556
420
9,679
499
19,516
659
27,092
982
36,675
1,097
50,315
1,645
40,099
962
20,471
796
4,864
134
1,280
46
332
21
137
22
0
1
Hawaii/Pacific 14,291
121
11,343
85
13,437
113
10,130
59
1,510
21
109
43
486
19
411
6
410
1








Idaho 805
69
2,977
151
4,968
56
17,410
104
4,975
59
8,395
105
3,795
99
1,742
34
1,790
23
196
4
167
4




Illinois 1,214
137
2,062
107
4,613
208
2,955
214
1,290
98
1,451
93
2,742
251
1,703
43
1,427
57
998
24
1,023
17
31
15


Indiana 5,606
225
9,706
329
8,609
401
13,520
576
58,179
2,820
26,299
1,177
13,515
522
1,037
37
730
15
49
1






Iowa 11,897
568
13,527
584
20,059
857
17,283
525
11,153
310
4,105
87
1,885
45
952
16
544
6








Kansas 15,373
676
28,234
825
35,412
985
33,211
635
31,889
321
67,268
500
52,920
352
37,942
211
18,089
112
2,319
17






Kentucky 11,922
508
14,847
930
14,751
1,033
15,588
990
9,026
528
2,493
165
1,330
83
246
14
136
2
4
1
105
4
29
20
101
1
Louisiana 9,708
580
15,012
456
83,331
2,460
27,646
814
20,035
598
13,336
432
6,274
129
5,850
110
4,595
65
2,374
64
2,878
38
1,470
27
1,137
22
Maine 12,539
205
8,491
167
19,037
335
61,264
394
24,158
208
13,453
321
9,452
130
2,127
85
1,038
39
965
28
648
18
5
4
204
21
Maryland 5,136
133
3,683
88
1,694
95
317
22
515
30
837
12
1,145
19
951
11
19
2
545
2






Massachusetts 5,846
473
5,185
411
6,177
338
5,200
458
4,631
328
3,610
248
1,146
149
845
153
401
20
45
14
192
16
138
7


Michigan 6,467
643
4,787
291
8,234
659
7,058
408
4,260
416
2,800
194
4,135
154
1,206
82
375
45
1,228
11
106
4


91
3
Minnesota 6,917
551
10,706
753
9,478
684
8,750
561
3,032
162
3,864
170
1,170
97
844
40
503
17
224
5






Mississippi 11,495
575
18,467
535
35,805
989
23,342
1,100
21,178
574
24,832
813
6,522
236
3,594
87
414
5
1,166
46
99
10
16
7


Missouri 17,390
942
10,742
770
47,500
1,774
22,693
1,216
8,620
433
8,654
344
4,488
159
1,492
60
630
26
71
7
246
15
57
5


Montana 50,898
162
23,232
243
24,739
204
40,904
207
50,044
217
47,878
156
42,258
104
28,077
51
2,827
20
1,520
18


778
4


Nebraska 9,642
432
14,100
405
20,352
524
20,919
484
14,737
181
19,731
114
3,993
49
1,284
11
131
4








Nevada 553
28
1,814
41
2,913
46
4,462
62
13,312
89
4,504
48
6,960
16
6,673
24
529
13
2,581
9


87
2


New Hampshire 13,264
300
23,975
382
21,834
416
23,333
391
12,301
241
12,137
267
7,521
198
4,570
108
1,341
45
2,069
25
1,411
10




New Jersey 4,273
248
4,963
398
5,766
312
3,001
260
2,007
112
1,179
82
1,436
41
1,476
39
956
22
1,322
5
397
6
427
10
95
3
New Mexico 32,790
67
101,048
128
85,423
92
103,375
132
137,832
66
29,051
85
46,555
83
32,850
62
6,910
20
3,039
6
2,056
1




New York 1,993
222
4,178
331
6,013
577
6,546
575
4,554
394
6,930
549
6,220
449
3,125
301
2,165
166
888
58
562
23
209
4


North Carolina 9,812
428
318,075
381
319,562
637
330,979
799
316,296
432
11,370
242
304,953
109
5,452
39
5,324
47








North Dakota 41,659
412
11,773
308
27,317
381
51,046
392
11,926
149
50,393
314
16,618
128
10,980
77
6,686
93
2,320
19






Ohio 2,572
141
5,298
101
7,721
255
6,825
179
4,775
55
3,788
23
177
12
3,765
5










Oklahoma 41,004
277
62,289
435
45,301
457
38,382
270
18,817
166
17,259
99
23,592
125
14,166
51
2,396
16
5,620
4






Oregon 49,581
231
43,648
217
57,333
185
63,955
205
63,182
187
44,281
144
26,504
65
18,899
48
3,469
9
2,701
5
2,234
8
302
1


Pennsylvania 4,032
248
5,814
354
11,138
379
8,706
322
14,895
253
23,598
203
17,744
121
13,055
61
7,550
38
3,366
12
3,188
14
3,189
14
2,443
6
Rhode Island 2,441
43
1,586
71
5,101
105
4,633
104
1,765
50
5,086
73
2,645
42
496
11
311
5




195
2


South Carolina 18,754
537
29,170
507
39,164
881
35,772
1,421
21,125
654
10,284
291
6,655
160
5,344
75
2,902
34
1,167
24
1,457
23
180
8


South Dakota 9,463
469
27,575
339
27,701
321
27,170
242
46,307
190
117,566
568
89,982
558
51,406
203
21,211
94
12,757
52
5,227
19
2,572
14


Tennessee 10,927
520
11,127
590
10,975
637
7,016
439
4,051
264
3,993
446
1,782
196
679
57
70
5
3
2






Texas 81,631
582
167,334
960
344,944
1,398
328,292
1,653
226,154
702
301,282
829
172,609
383
99,032
223
100,980
178
32,612
79
23,757
61
11,723
8
1,042
3
Utah 21,479
48
22,172
57
23,741
60
33,843
63
8,358
42
7,714
45
1,938
20
3,190
16
865
2








Vermont 24,522
727
28,660
1,071
25,748
1,044
29,214
1,039
21,803
671
13,598
412
8,087
309
4,704
141
1,533
27
724
18
25
9
16
2
18
5
Virginia 4,965
482
22,458
675
23,125
772
14,484
669
7,964
275
5,594
174
3,554
43
443
19
1,034
19








Washington 9,066
225
10,463
291
20,639
244
10,232
301
10,825
110
10,007
145
14,035
86
8,060
101
5,142
71
4,984
87
4,371
39
2,091
32
972
20
West Virginia 25,082
609
16,345
640
21,215
504
25,701
733
15,267
383
12,936
494
9,756
325
5,481
149
3,497
106
2,764
55
553
37
15
5


Wisconsin 4,931
350
28,478
401
10,356
286
6,893
242
4,443
112
1,240
55
449
15
49
7
23
9








Wyoming 52,111
91
15,962
90
13,466
115
28,460
125
18,608
72
46,896
188
24,481
74
26,294
95
9,875
7








Total 1,239,466
17,610
1,811,758
19,861
2,274,276
26,891
1,893,081
24,378
1,714,742
17,871
1,409,344
16,983
1,228,911
9,242
544,045
4,703
302,607
1,945
157,140
917
86,445
462
24,480
228
6,316
93
Notes:
• Data Source: USDA-NRCS, National Planning and Agreements Database (NPAD), October 2021.
• Land unit acres may be counted multiple times across fiscal years.
• Caribbean includes Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands.
• Hawaii/Pacific includes Hawaii and the Pacific Basin.

Land Unit Acres Receiving Conservation by Practice

The following chart/table combination present conservation practice data grouped by purpose: Fish & Wildlife Habitat. Any practices not included in this group are included in an All Other category. Data for practices in the All Other category can be downloaded in the Farm Bill Conservation Programs Profile csv file.

Land unit acres are counted each time a practice is applied on that land unit in the fiscal year. Therefore land unit acres may be counted multiple times across practices and fiscal years. To learn more about specific conservation practices, see the National Handbook of Conservation Practices.

Conservation Practices Related to Fish & Wildlife

The following chart and table includes practices that are related to Fish & Wildlife Habitat Management. The environment that NRCS helps its clients conserve, maintain, and improve is also habitat for fish & wildlife and other biological resources. While every practice and management action taken on the land has some effect on biological resources, the following practices are specifically related to fish & wildlife habitat.

Land Unit Acres Receiving Conservation, FY 2009-2021

Only practices representing a significant portion of the total for the period are included in the above chart. If applicable, practices not included are summed into the All Other category.

Land Unit Acres Receiving Conservation (including practice count) by Fiscal Year
WHIP Fish & Wildlife Habitat Practices
Practice Name Practice Code 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count
Access Control 472 9,660
247
11,690
216
15,741
187
53,687
433
25,086
399
24,387
68
1,988
20
2,266
14
192
6
236
2
107
3




Aquatic Organism Passage 396 8,035
44
6,273
33
4,856
39
21,747
18
4,952
14
191
12
57
4
13
3










Conservation Cover 327 16,087
591
30,519
706
41,530
928
42,731
711
17,540
319
24,386
334
25,127
206
8,949
65
2,977
38
467
10
180
10
52
3
57
1
Early Successional Habitat Development/Management 647 88,832
1,841
92,337
2,440
106,212
2,408
113,706
2,292
79,838
1,478
70,938
1,590
123,113
1,290
35,758
748
12,377
354
6,614
142
3,082
72
3,358
19
1,970
22
Hedgerow Planting 422 7,088
135
2,444
133
4,647
132
6,362
115
1,475
53
822
30
522
19
856
2
77
1
73
1




210
3
Restoration and Management of Rare or Declining Habitats 643 46,928
525
47,791
534
63,224
624
71,942
798
44,737
485
50,228
488
23,433
268
12,318
210
4,472
102
3,310
44
1,751
36
365
22


Riparian Forest Buffer 391 9,621
48
1,683
60
2,370
60
3,239
77
542
24
1,920
18
592
22
604
18
877
4
133
9
15
1


12
3
Riparian Herbaceous Cover 390 14
4
10,063
13
11,685
36
971
27
736
8
104
8
1,412
4
18
1










Shallow Water Development and Management 646 2,384
53
5,605
91
213,197
3,535
58,074
862
44,797
745
35,448
595
3,769
55
286
2
20
1








Stream Habitat Improvement and Management 395 6,320
96
5,074
94
4,466
55
3,662
84
1,747
36
1,052
23
82
5
412
7


5,990
6
741
3




Streambank and Shoreline Protection 580 2,965
91
6,869
107
3,374
99
5,258
121
1,827
62
5,102
88
8,885
57
277
10
508
6
375
4
733
1




Upland Wildlife Habitat Management 645 885,610
5,113
969,672
4,541
1,042,580
5,527
544,868
5,018
284,645
2,501
414,536
2,487
279,188
1,572
216,510
812
175,171
342
131,012
145
66,809
70
4,224
54
1,951
16
Wetland Creation 658 342
12
1,174
18
2,261
28
1,122
20
731
4
107
2
5
1












Wetland Enhancement 659 1,633
37
3,274
35
2,065
30
6,285
41
763
7
229
4
4
1
3
1










Wetland Restoration 657 8,056
91
6,376
86
4,978
68
3,970
97
1,652
30
208
9
211
3
13
1










Wetland Wildlife Habitat Management 644 21,908
211
26,277
285
37,136
375
27,224
426
15,030
144
13,111
177
16,947
73
2,695
38
1,591
12
2,908
9
1,309
12


44
2
Notes:
• Data Source: USDA-NRCS, National Planning and Agreements Database (NPAD), October 2021.
• Land unit acres may be counted multiple times across fiscal years.
• Watering Facility (614) is not included in the above table. It is included for the purposes of this report in the All Other Practices category.

The following table includes program information under which the above practices related to Fish & Wildlife Habitat Management were applied. These data reflect the geographic extent of the land treated with fish & wildlife habitat practices by each conservation program during a fiscal year. Land unit acres may be counted multiple times across fiscal years, but are only counted once per fiscal year.

Land Unit Acres Receiving Conservation (including practice count) by Fiscal Year
WHIP Fish & Wildlife Habitat Practices
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count Acres Count
Land Unit Acres treated by at least one practice 733,987
9,139
876,832
9,392
1,139,254
14,131
732,719
11,140
388,692
6,309
483,874
5,933
358,203
3,600
192,227
1,932
114,851
866
82,611
372
46,567
208
5,205
98
3,093
47
Notes:
• Data Source: USDA-NRCS, National Planning and Agreements Database (NPAD), October 2021.
• Land unit acres may be counted multiple times across fiscal years.

More Information

The data in this report in CSV format (file includes all titles and table notes) can be downloaded here.

Selected data for RCA programs reports in excel format (machine readable flat files) can be found here.

Return to the RCA Data Viewer.

For more information about NRCS Conservation Programs, visit http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/

Citation for this website:
U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Financial Management Modernization Initiative (FMMI) 2012-2021 Data October 2021
Foundation Financial Information System (FFIS) 2009-2011 Data
National Planning and Agreements Database (NPAD) October 2021
Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC. 31 August 2022*
<http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/NRCS_RCA/reports/fb08_cp_whip.html>

*[use date the website was accessed]