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Research Funding Recommendations

The Secretary�s Agricultural Air Quality Task Force recently made their recommendations to the Secretary on research priorities and associated funding.� The priorities for agricultural air quality research are related to:

 

�        National Ambient Air Quality Standards PM10

�        National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 and Ozone

�        Animal waste odor

 

The Task Force recommends a total increase of $65 million for each of the fiscal years 2001 through 2004 be supported in the budget as follows:

�        $10 million for the Agricultural Research Service.� Of this amount $2 million should be allocated to address the serious problems faced by operators of confined animal feeding operations in their efforts to comply with air quality standards.

�        $10 million for the Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service.� These funds should be allocated through competitive research grants with 50% targeted to research programs with a 5 to 7 year duration.� Funding would also address education of managers of agricultural operations in cooperation with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and local soil and water conservation districts.

�        $25 million for NRCS to help producers meet air quality standards, and

�        $20 million for the Environmental Protection Agency to match USDA research efforts.

 

These recommendations will result in interdisciplinary programs focusing on improving air quality, decreasing agriculture�s contribution to ambient PM10, more efficient air pollution abatement systems, more accurate emission factors which will yield more accurate emission inventories based on sound science with consideration for economic feasibility.� The ultimate goal will be minimizing the public impact of air pollution attributed to agriculture while maintaining a viable production agriculture.


Original draft by Subcommittee on Research consisting of Dr. Calvin B. Parnell, Jr. PE (chair), Dr. Keith Saxton, Dr. Robert Flocchini, and Dr. Joseph Miller



Priority #1. Research related to air quality regulations of agricultural particulate matter (PM10)

Current knowledge does not fully describe particulate matter (PM10) emissions from agricultural practices.� To better understand the particulate matter regulatory issues (particle size distribution, speciation, etc.) emitted by wind blown dust, agricultural burning, field operations, agricultural processing, and non-road engine emissions.

$2 M/yr

Improved PM10 sampling methodology, including statistical procedures, and development of testing and monitoring equipment, to assure accuracy and reliability.

$3 M/yr

Determine methodologies to speciate PM10 (e.g. distinguishing agricultural sources of PM10 from non-agricultural sources).

$2 M/yr

Determine the contribution of agricultural activities (agricultural burning, processing, non-road engine emissions, field activities, and wind erosion) to ambient levels of PM10.

$3 M/yr

Determine the contribution of soil, organic matter, and crop residues (agricultural particulate matter) to PM10 ambient concentrations.

$2 M/yr

Development of accurate PM10 emission factors from agricultural activities.

$4 M/yr

Improved PM10 dispersion modeling methodology including deposition and transport.

$2 M/yr

Determine the economic and technological feasibility of PM10 air pollution control strategies for compliance with the Clean Air Act and State Air Pollution Regulations.

$1 M/yr

Implementation Plan (SIP) requirements, National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and regional and local air resource standards.

$1 M/yr

��������� Priority #1 Total = $20 million/year

 

 

 

 


Priority #2a.� Research related to air quality regulations of agricultural particulate matter (PM2.5)

Current knowledge does not fully describe particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions from agricultural practices.� To better understand the particulate matter regulatory issues (particle size distribution, speciation, etc.) emitted by wind blown dust, agricultural burning, field operations, agricultural processing, and non-road engine emissions.

$0.5 M/yr

Improved PM2.5 sampling methodology, including statistical procedures, and development of testing and monitoring equipment, to assure accuracy and reliability.

$0.5 M/yr

Determine methodologies to speciate PM2.5 (e.g. distinguishing agricultural sources of PM10 from non-agricultural sources).

$1 M/yr

Determine the contribution of agricultural activities (agricultural burning, processing, non-road engine emissions, field activities, and wind erosion) to ambient levels of PM2.5.

$1 M/yr

Determine the contribution of soil, organic matter, and crop residues (agricultural particulate matter) to PM2.5 ambient concentrations.

$1 M/yr

Development of accurate PM2.5 emission factors from agricultural activities.

$1 M/yr

Improved PM2.5 dispersion modeling methodology including deposition and transport.

$0.5 M/yr

Determine the economic and technological feasibility of PM2.5 air pollution control strategies for compliance with the Clean Air Act and State Air Pollution Regulations.

$0.5 M/yr

������������ Priority #2a Total = $ 6 million/yr

 

 


Priority #2b.� Research related to air quality regulations of ozone attributed to agricultural operations.

Determine/monitor ozone levels in rural areas and determine the contribution of anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic (biogenic) sources of NOx and reactive VOC�s.� {Determine the contribution of ozone precursors (NOx and reactive VOC�s) from agricultural operations to ambient ozone concentrations.� Develop emission factors for reactive VOC�s and NOx from agricultural operations.}

$ 1M/yr

Economic assessment of ambient ozone effects on crop production, including costs to agriculture from control measures as well as benefits from reduction of ambient ozone concentrations.� {Develop control strategies that will allow for reductions of NOx and reactive VOC�s from agricultural operations with consideration for economic impacts.}

$ 1M/yr

Determine the effects of ozone on plant response to disease and pests.

$ 1M/yr

Determine the influence of environmental variables on ozone impacts including factors affecting ozone flux to plants (uptake).

$ 1M/yr

Determine the effects of agricultural activities and rural areas as to their role(s) in sequestering NOx and reactive VOC�s.

$ 1 M/yr

Develop and validate models to predict ozone effects on crop productivity, including statistical, economic, and plant growth process models.� {Develop dispersion modeling procedures that can be used to accurately estimate concentrations of precursors from agricultural fugitive and point sources impacting downwind ambient ozone concentrations.}

$ 1 M/yr

Priority #2b Total = $6 million/year

Priority #2 Grand Total = $12 million/year

 

 



Priority #3.� Research related to air quality regulations agricultural odors.

Agricultural odors remain a complex issue with both a measurable component based on the presence of small amounts of specific gas molecules and a more subjective component based on individual sensitivity.� Support for expanded research activities is needed to fill gaps between technology development and the needs of agricultural producers and the public.

$2 M/yr

Expanded research support is required in the following areas to better identify and measure odors, determine the relationship between odorous compounds and the environment, identify human response to odors, and identify economical control methods and reduction strategies.

$1 M/yr

Determine odor sources from agricultural production and the impact of design and management practices on odor release and transport.

$1 M/yr

Improved dispersion modeling methodology including odor release, transport, and receptors.

$1 M/yr

Standardized measurement methodology, technologies and devices for odor detection including frequency, intensity, duration, and offensiveness.

$1 M/yr

Determine the chemical and physical properties of odor including odor production processes, interaction of environmental variables, odor release pathways, interactions among odorants, and kinetics.

$1 M/yr

Development and implementation of economically and technologically feasible odor control and reduction strategies.

$1 M/yr

Priority #3 Total = $8 million/year

 

 

These recommendations are based on several meetings of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force, analysis of existing research, and a review of the literature.� Appended to this memo is a list of some of the references utilized.



References

Baker, R., S.E. Hughes, and C.B. Parnell, Jr.� 1998.� Summary of Air Quality Research. Proceedings of the 1998 Beltwide Cotton Production Conferences.� National Cotton Council, Memphis, TN.

Beene, J.S.� 1995. SO2 Impacts on Forage and Soil Sulfur Concentrations Near Coal Fired Power Plants.� Unpublished Master of Science Thesis.

Boubel, R.W., E.F. Darley, and E.A. Schuck.� 1969.� Emissions from burning grass stubble and straw.� J. Air Pollution Control Assoc. 19(7):497-500.

Buch, U.M., C.B. Parnell, Jr., and B.W. Shaw.� 1998.� Particle Size Distribution Results with the Cascade Impactor and Coulter Counter.� Proceedings of the 1998 Beltwide Cotton Production Conferences.� National Cotton Council, Memphis, TN

Buscher, W. 1997� Modelling Emissions. In: (J.A.M. Voermans and G.J. Monteny) Proceedings, Amonia and Odor Emissions from Animal Production Facilities (Volume I), Vinkeloord, The Netherlands.� pp. 15-22.

California Department of Food and Agriculture.� 1996.� PM-10 June 18, 1996 Meeting Notes, Davis: Researchable Questions.

Conklin, F.S.� 1976.� Adjusting to air quality standards:� A contrast between grower and industry effects in grass seed production.� OSU Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Paper 4255.

Cooperative State Research Service.� August 1993.� PM-10: Researchable Questions.� United States Department of Agriculture.

Flannigan, S.S., C.B. Parnell, Jr., B.W. Show, S. Ramaiyer. 1997.� Minimum cost compliance strategies for cottin gins across the U.S.� Proceedings of the 1997 Beltwide Cotton Production Conferences.� National Cotton Council, Memphis, TN.

Flannigan, S., G.W. Amicke, C.B. Parnell, Jr, and B.W. Shaw.� 1998.� Minimum Cost Compliance with Air Pollution Regulations.� Proceedings of the 1998 Beltwide Cotton Production Conferences. �National Cotton Council, Memphis, TN.

Flannigan, S.� 1997.� Minimum Cost Air Pollution Control for Cotton Gins.� Unpublished Master of Science Thesis.

Fritz, B., G. Zwicke, B.W. Shaw, and C.B. Parnell, Jr.� 1998.� Particulate Dispersion Modeling from Grould Level Area Sources.� Proceedings of the 1998 Beltwide Cotton Production Conferences.� National Cotton Council, Memphis, TN.

Hardison, J.R., 1980.� Role of fire for disease control in grass seed production.� Plant Dis.� 64:641-645.

Humenik, F.J.� 1998.� National Center for manure and Animal Waste Management.� North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, Raleigh N.C. Proposal (14-state) submitted to the USDA-Cooperative States Research, Education and Extension Service, Fund for Rural America Program, Washington, D.C. March.

Hurley, E.G., ed. 1995.� Wind Erosion Control at a Crossroads Conference Proceedings.� Golden Sands RC&D Area, Stevens Point, WI.

Hurley, E.G., ed. 1996.� Wind Erosion Control in Wisconsin.� Golden Sands RC&D Area, Stevens Point, WI.

Jenkins, B.M., S.Q. Turn, R.B. Williams, M. Goronea, H. Abd-el-Rattah, J. Mehlschau, N. Raubach, D.P.Y. Chang, M. Kang, S.V. Taague, O.G. Raabe, D.E. Campbell, T.A. Cahill, L. Protchett, J. Chow, and A.D. Jones.� 1996.� Atmospheric pollutant emission factors for open burning of agricultural and forest biomass by wind tunnel simulations.� Calif. Air Resources Board, Sacramento, CA. Report No. A932-126.

Mihalski, K.D.� 1995.� The Design of a Pre-Collector for Cyclone Collectors.� Unpublished Master of Science Thesis.

Miner, J.R.� 1995.� Executive Summary:� A Review of the Literature on the Nature and Control of Odors from Pork Production Facilities.� National Pork Producers Council, Des Moines, IA.� 22 p.

Parnell, C.B. Jr., 1996.� Cyclone Design for Air Pollution Abatement Associated with Agricultural Operations.� Proceedings of the 1996 Beltwide Cotton Product ion Conferences. National Cotton Council.� Nashville, TN.

Parnell, C.B. Jr., P.J. Wakelyn.� 1996.� Regulation of Agricultural Operations Using Emission Factors and Process Weight Tables.� Paper presented at the 1996 International Conference on Air Pollution from Agricultural Operations.� Kansas City, MO and published in the Proceedings of the 1996 Cotton Product ion Conferences. National Cotton Council.� Nashville, TN.

Ramaiyer, A., C.B. Parnell, Jr., B.W. Shaw, S.S. Flannigan, B.Fritz.� 1997.� Engineering Analysis and Economic Impacts of Air Pollution Abatement Strategies for Cotton Gins.� Proceedings of the 1997 Beltwide Cotton Product ion Conferences. National Cotton Council.� Nashville, TN.

Ramaiyer, A., C.B. Parnell, Jr., R. Childers, S. Fuller, M. Gillis. 1996.� Engineering Analysis and Economic Impacts of Air Pollution Abatement Strategies for Cotton Gins.� Proceedings of the 1996 Beltwide Cotton Product ion Conferences. National Cotton Council.� Nashville, TN.

Saxton, K.E.� 1995.� Wind erosion and its impact on off-site air quality in the Columbia Plateau � An integrated research plan.� Trans. ASAE 38(4): 1031-1038.

Saxton, K.E. ed. 1996.� Northwest Columbia Plateau Wind Erosion Air Quality Project � An Interim Report, Washington State University, College of Agric. and Home Econ. Misc. Pub. No. MISC0182, 47 pp.

Schulte, D.� 1997.� Critical Parameters for Emissions. In: (J.A.M. Voermans and G.J. Monteny) Proceedings, Amonia and Odor Emissions from Animal Production Facilities (Volume I), Vinkeloord, The Netherlands.� pp. 23-23.

Shaw, B.W., P Buharivala, C.B. parnell, Jr., and M.A. Demny,� 1998.� Emission Factors for Grain Receiving and Feed Loading.� Accepted for publication in ASAE Transactions. Manuscript No. SE1598.

Simpson, S.L.� 1995.� Performance Characteristics of a Low Pressure Cyclone for Axial Flow Fan Exhausts.� Unpublished Master of Science Thesis.

Sweeten, J.M. 1995.� Odor Measurement Technology and Applications: A State-of-the-ART Review. In: (C.C. Ross, ed.) Proceedings, 7th International Symposium on Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes, Chicago. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.� pp. 214-229.

Sweeten, J.M., C.B. Parnell, Jr., B.W. Shaw, B.W. Auvermann.� 1998.� Particle Size of Cattle Feedlot Dust Emissions.� Submitted to ASAE for publication in Transactions.� Manuscript No. SE1658 (in review).

Tulles, A.W., B.W. Shaw, C.B. Parnell, Jr., P.P. Buharivala, M.A. Demny, and S.S. Flannigan,� 1997.� Design and Analysis of the barrel cyclone.� Proceedings of the 1996 Beltwide Cotton Product ion Conferences. National Cotton Council.� Nashville, TN.

Williams, L.M. 1996.� Evaluation of the Industrial Source Complex Screen2 for Regulatory Purposes.� Unpublished Master of Science Thesis.

Williams, L.M., M.A. Demney, C.B. Parnell, Jr., B.W. Shaw.� 1997.� A new method for predicting ambient concentration downwind from cotton gins.� Proceedings of the 1997 Beltwide Cotton Product ion Conferences. National Cotton Council.� Nashville, TN.

Yarlogadda, S.N. 1995.� Engineering and Economic Analysis for Cotton Gin Compliance with Air Pollution Regulations.� Unpublished Master of Science Thesis.

Zwicke, G., B. Fritz, C.B. Parnell, Jr., and B.W. Shaw.� 1998.� A Re-Examination of Particulate Dispersion Modeling for Cotton Gins.� Proceedings of the 1998 Beltwide Cotton Product ion Conferences. National Cotton Council.� Nashville, TN.