Skip

NSSH Part 629

Glossary Of Landform and Geologic Terms
 

629.00  Definition and Purpose

This glossary provides the NRCS soil survey program, soil scientists, and natural resource specialists with landform, geologic, and related terms and their definitions to:

  • Improve soil landscape description with a standard, single source landform and geologic glossary;
  • Enhance geomorphic content and clarity of soil map unit descriptions by use of accurate, defined terms;
  • Establish consistent geomorphic term usage in soil science and the National Cooperative Soil Survey (NCSS);
  • Provide standard geomorphic definitions for databases and soil survey technical publications; and
  • Train soil scientists and related professionals in soils as landscape and geomorphic entities.
     

629.01  Responsibilities

This glossary serves as the official NCSS reference for landform, geologic, and related terms. The staff of the National Soil Survey Center, located in Lincoln, NE, is responsible for maintaining and updating this glossary. Soil scientists at the MLRA soil survey offices and NCSS participants are encouraged to propose additions and changes to the glossary for use in pedon descriptions, soil map unit descriptions, and soil survey publications. The Glossary of Geology (GG, 2005) serves as a major source for many glossary terms. The American Geologic Institute (AGI) granted USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) permission (in letters dated 9/11/85 and 9/22/93) to use existing definitions. Modifications to original AGI definitions are explained below.
 

629.02  Definitions

(a) Reference codes

Sources from which definitions were taken, whole or in part, are identified by a code (e.g., GG) following each definition. Underlined codes (e.g., GG) signify a definition modification form the original source. The reference codes are:

BHM - Buol, S.W., Hole, F.D., McCracken, R.J., and Southard, R.J. 1997. Soil genesis and classification, 4th Ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA; 527 p.

CC - Cowardin, L.M., Carter, V., Golet, F.C., and Laroe, E.T. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. US Dept. Interior, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

CF - Clayton, L. and Freers, T.F. (eds.) 1967. Glacial geology of the Missouri Coteau and adjacent areas. Guidebook 18th annual field conference Midwest Friends of the Pleistocene. North Dakota Geological Survey Miscellaneous Series #30, 170 p.

CV - Cruden, D.M., and Varnes, D.J. 1996. Landslide types and processes. In: Turner, A.K., and Schuster, R.L., (eds). 1996. Landslides: investigations and mitigation. National Research Council, Transportation Research Board Special Report No. 247; National Academy Press, Washington, DC; 673 p.

DV - Varnes, D. 1978. Slope movement types and processes. In: Schuster, R.L., and R.J. Krizek. (eds). 1978. Landslides: analysis and control. National Academy Sciences, Transportation Research Board Special Report No. 176; 234 p.

FC - Freeze, A.L. and Cherry, J.A. 1979. Groundwater. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 604 p.

FFP - Peterson, F.F. 1981. Landforms of the Basin and Range Province defined for soil survey. Nevada Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 28, Reno, NV. 52 p.

GG - Neuendorf, K.K.E., Mehl Jr., J.P., and Jackson, J.A. (ed.) 2005. Glossary of geology, 5th Ed. American Geological Institute, Alexandria, VA. 779 p.

GG87 - Bates, R.L., and Jackson, J.A. (ed) 1987. Glossary of geology, 3rd Ed. American Geological Institute, Alexandria, VA. 788 p.

GHG - Gile, L.H., Hawley, J.W., and Grossman, R.B. 1981. Soils and geomorphology in the Basin and Range area of southern New Mexico – Guidebook to the Desert Project. Memoir 39. New Mexico Bureau of Mines & Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM; 222 p.

GM - Goldthwaite, R.P. and Matsch, C.L. (eds.) 1988. Genetic classification of glaciogenic deposits: final report of the commission on genesis and lithology of glacial Quaternary deposits of the International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA). A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam; 294 p.

GS - Green, J., and Short, N.M. 1971. Volcanic landforms and surface features: A photographic atlas and glossary. Springer – Verlag, New York, NY. 519 p.

GSST - Soil Science Society of America. 2008. Glossary of Soil Science terms. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. 92 p.

HD - Holdorf, H. and Donahue, J. 1990. Landforms for soil surveys in the Northern Rockies. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana, Misc. Publ. No. 51. 26 p.

HF - Fisk, H.N. 1959. Padre Island and the Laguna Madre flats, coastal south Texas. Louisiana State University, 2nd Coastal Geography Conference; pp. 103-151.

HP - Hawley, J.W., and Parsons, R.B. 1980. Glossary of selected geomorphic and geologic terms. Mimeo. USDA Soil Conservation Service, West National Technical Center, Portland, OR. 30 p.

HS - Sigurdsson, H., (ed). 2000. Encyclopedia of volcanoes. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, USA. ISBN# 0-12-643140-X

ICOMANTH - International Committee for Anthropogenic Soils. 2012. Circular Letter 7, Proposed Revisions to NSSH Part 629 (working draft), 13 p.

KST - Soil Survey Staff. 1994. Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Sixth edition. USDA - Soil Conservation Service (p. 30).

MA - MacDonald, G.A. and A.T. Abbott. 1970. Volcanoes in the sea, the geology of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press, 441 p.

NL - Lancaster, N. 1995. Geomorphology of desert dunes. Routledge, New York, NY. 209 p.

NRC - National Research Council of Canada. 1988. Glossary of permafrost and related ground ice terms. Associate Committee Geotechnical Research, Technical Memorandum 142; 156 p.

RD - Daniels, Raymond B. (personal communication).

RF - Fairbridge, R.W. (ed.). Encyclopedia of geomorphology. 1968. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series, vol. 3. Reinhold Book Corporation, New York, NY.

RR - Ruhe, R.V. 1975. Geomorphology: Geomorphic processes and surficial geology. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston, MA, 246 p.

SJ - Sugden, D.E. and John, B.S. 1976. Glaciers and landscape, a geomorphological approach. Halsted Press, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 376 p.

SS - Summer, M.E., and Stewart, B.A. (eds). 1992. Soil crusting in Australia. In: Soil crusting: chemical and physical process. Advances in Soil Science, Lewis Publishing, Boca Raton, FL.

SSM - Soil Survey Division Staff. 1993. Soil survey manual. Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook No. 18, U.S. Gov. Print. Office, Washington, DC.

SSS - Subaqueous Soils Subcommittee. 2005. Glossary of terms for subaqueous soils, landscapes, landforms, and parent materials of estuaries and lagoons. National Cooperative Soil Survey Conference, USDA-NRCS, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE.

ST - Soil Survey Staff. 1999. Soil taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. 2nd edition. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook 436.

SW - Schoeneberger, P.J. and Wysocki, D.A. 2013. (personal communication), National Soil Survey Center, NRCS, Lincoln, NE.

WA - Way, D.S. 1973. Terrain analysis. Harvard University, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, PA. 392 p.

WT - Thornbury, W.D. 1969. Principles of geomorphology; 2nd Ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY; 594 p.

WW - White, W.B. 1988. Geomorphology and hydrology of karst terrains. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, NY; 478 p.

(b) Clarifying comments included with glossary definitions

(not recommended) use – denotes an unacceptable term (obsolete, poorly-defined, or erroneous) that should not be used. The glossary provides alternative terms.

(not preferred) refer to – denotes a technically acceptable, but poorly-defined or outdated term that should be avoided to prevent confusion and redundancy. Preferred alternatives are provided.

(colloquial: ) – denotes a regionally-derived or applied term and identifies the region where it has been used. A colloquial term is either not widely accepted or unknown outside the geographic area where it originates. A colloquial term should be avoided if a more widely recognized alternative exists.

Compare – Follows a term definition and indicates additional glossary entries that are similar or related to that term.

(c) Glossary

Glossary terms and definitions (PDF; 514 KB)


629.03  References

(a) Current references

Birkeland, P.W. 1999. Soils and geomorphology, 3rd Ed. Oxford University Press; 430 p.

Bloom, Arthur L. 1997. Geomorphology: a systematic analysis of late Cenozoic landforms, 3rd Ed. Prentice Hall.

Boothroyd, J.C., Friedrich, N.E., and McGinn, S.R. 1985. Geology of microtidal coastal lagoons: Rhode Island. Marine Geology 63:35-76.

Buol, S.W., Southard, R.J., Graham, R.C., and McDaniel, P.A. 2003. Soil classification and genesis, 5th ed. Iowa State Press Ames, IA. ISBN:0-8138-2873-2

Cherry, J.A.. 1999. Groundwater. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Colman, S.M. and Dethier, D.P. (eds.) 1986. Rates of chemical weathering of rocks and minerals. Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, FL. 603 p.

Compton, R.R. 1985. Geology in the field. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY; 398 p.

Cooke, R.U. and Warren, A.. 1973. Geomorphology in deserts. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA; 374 p.

Cowardin, L.M., Carter, V., Golet, F.C., and Laroe, E.T. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. US Dept. Interior, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Cruden, D.M. and Varnes, D.J. 1996. Landslide types and processes. In: Turner, A.K., and Schuster, R.L. , (eds). 1996. Landslides: investigations and mitigation. National Research Council, Transportation Research Board Special Report No. 247; National Academy Press, Washington, DC; 673 p.

Curran, H.A., Justus, P.S., Young, D.M., and Garver, J.B. 1984. Atlas of landforms, 3rd Ed. US Military Academy, West Point, NY, Dept Geography and Computer Science; 155 p.

Daniels, Dr. Raymond B. 1992. (Personal communication). Head (retired), Soil Survey Investigations, USDA - Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D.C.

Daniels, R.B., and Hammer, D.. 1992. Soil geomorphology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY.

Davis, R.A. 1994. Barrier island systems - a geologic overview. P. 1-46. In: Davis, R.A. ed.) 1994. Geology of Holocene barrier island systems. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.

Demas, G.P. 1998. Subaqueous soil of Sinepuxent Bay, Maryland. PhD dissertation, Department of Natural Resources and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

Dixon, J.B., and Weed, S.B. (eds.) 1989. Minerals in the soil environment, 2nd Ed. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, Book Series, No. 1; 1244 p.

Dutro, J.T., Dietrich, R.V., Foose, R.M. 1989. AGI field data sheets: for geology in the field, laboratory and office, 3rd Ed. American Geological Institute, Alexandria, VA.

Fisher, J.J., and Simpson, E.J. 1979. Washover and tidal sedimentation rates as environmental factors in development of a transgressive barrier shoreline; pp.127-148. In: Leatherman, S.P. (ed.) 1979. Barrier islands from the Gulf of St Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico. Academic Press, New York, NY.

Fisk, H.N. 1959. Padre Island and the Laguna Madre flats, coastal south Texas. Louisiana State University, 2nd Coastal Geography Conference; pp. 103-151.

Gile, L.H., Hawley, J.W., and Grossman, R.B. 1981. Soils and geomorphology in the Basin and Range area of southern New Mexico- guidebook to the Desert Project. Memoir 39. New Mexico Bureau of Mines & Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM; 222 p.

Gile, L.H. and Ahrens, R.J., (eds.) 1994. Supplement to the desert project soil monograph: Soils and landscapes of a desert region astride the Rio Grande Valley near Las Cruces, New Mexico. USDA - Soil Conservation Service, Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 44, vol. 1: Soil water and soils at the soil water sites, Jornada experiment range. National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE; 592 p.

Goldthwaite, R.P. and Matsch, C.L, (eds.) 1988. Genetic classification of glacigenic deposits: final report of the commission on genesis and lithology of glacial Quaternary deposits of the International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA). A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam; 294 p.

Graf, W.L. (ed.) 1987. Geomorphic systems of North America. Geological Society America, Decade of North American Geology, Centennial Special Volume, No. 2.; 643 p.

Hamblin, W.K. and Howard, J.D.. 1995. Exercises in physical geology, 8th Ed. Burgess Publ. Co., Minneapolis, MN; 192 p.

Harland, W.B., Armstrong, R.L., Craig, L.E., Smith, A.G., and Smith, D.G. 1990. A geologic time scale. Press Syndicate of University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; 1 sheet.

Holdorf, H. and Donahue, J. 1990. Landforms for soil surveys in the Northern Rockies. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana, Misc. Publ. No. 51; 26 p.

Hunt, C.B. 1986. Surficial deposits of the United States. Van Nos Reinhold Co., Inc., New York, NY; 208 p.

Jackson, J.A.. (ed.). 1997. Glossary of geology, 4th Ed. American Geological Institute, Alexandria, VA; 769 p. ISBN 0-922152-34-9

Kidder, David L. 1987. Stratigraphy, micropaleontology, petrography, carbonate geochemistry, and depositional history of the Proterozoic Libby Formation, Belt Supergroup, northwestern Montana and northeastern Idaho. USGS Open File Report 87-635. US Dept of Interior.

Lancaster, N. 1995. Geomorphology of desert dunes. Routledge, New York, NY. 209 p.

Mausbach, M.J. and Wilding, L.P. (eds.) 1991. Spatial variabilities of soils and landforms. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, Special Publication No.28; 270 p.

Maxwell, D.T. 1973. Layer silicate mineralogy of the Precambrian Belt Series in Belt Symposium sponsored by the Dept of Geology, Univ. of Idaho and the Idaho Bur. of Mines and Geology, Sept 17-22, 1973. vol II, pp. 114-138.

McGinn, S.R. 1982. Facies distribution of Ninigret Pond. Masters thesis, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI.

Monroe, W.H. 1976. The karst landforms of Puerto Rico. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 899, U.S. Govt. Print. Office, Washington, DC.

Monroe, W.H. 1980. Some tropical landforms of Puerto Rico. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1159, U.S. Govt. Print. Office, Washington, DC.

Morrison, R.B. (ed.) 1991. Quaternary nonglacial geology: conterminous United States. Geological Society of America, Decade of North American Geology, Geology of North America, Vol. K-2; 672 p.

National Research Council of Canada. 1988. Glossary of permafrost and related ground ice terms. Associate Committee Geotechnical Research, Technical Memorandum 142; 156 p.

Neuendorf, K.K.E., Mehl, J.P., Jr., Jackson, J. 2005. Glossary of geology, 5th Ed. American Geological Institute, Alexandria, VA. ISBN 0-922152-76-4

Nordt, J.S., Sowers, J.M., and Lettis, W.R. 2000. Quaternary geochronology. AGU Reference Shelf 4, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC; (ISBN 0-87590-950-7); 582 p.

Peterson, F.F. 1981. Landforms of the Basin and Range Province defined for soil survey. Nevada Agricultural Experiment Station, Technical Bulletin No. 28, Reno, NV; 52 p.

Peterson, F.F. 1990. A manual for describing NSSL soil sampling sites: Terms and concepts for identifying physiographic position and other sampling site descriptors; Draft ver. 1.0; USDA-NRCS National Soil Survey Laboratory, Lincoln, NE; 61 p. [unpublished]

Porter, S.C. (ed.) 1983. Late-quaternary environments of the United States, Vol. 1: the late Pleistocene. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN. 277 p.

Ritter, D.F., Kochel, R.C., and Miller, J.R. 1995. Process geomorphology, 3rd Ed. Wm C. Brown Publ.; Dubuque, IA; 539 p.

Royse, C.F. and Barsch, D. 1971. Terraces and pediment terraces in the southwest: an interpretation. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 82:3177-3182.

Schoeneberger, P.J. and Wysocki, D.A. 2012. Geomorphology. In: Schoeneberger, P.J., Wysocki, D.A., Benham, E.C., and Soil Survey Staff. 2012. Field book for describing and sampling soils, version3.0. National Soil Survey Center, Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA, Lincoln, NE.

Schoeneberger, P.J. and Wysocki, D.A. 2000. (personal communication). National Soil Survey Center, USDA - NRCS, Lincoln, NE.

Schoeneberger, P.J., Wysocki, D.A., Benham, E.C., and Soil Survey Staff. 2012. Field book for describing and sampling soils, version 3.0. National Soil Survey Center, Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA, Lincoln, NE.

Schumm, S.A. 1977. The fluvial system. John Wiley & Sons., Inc., New York, NY; 338 p.

Schumm, S.A. 1987. Experimental fluvial geomorphology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY; 413 p.

Schumm, S.A. 1991. To interpret the earth: 10 ways to be wrong. Cambridge Univ. Press; 180 p.

Schumm, S.A., Harvey, M.D., and Watson, C.C. 1984. Incised channels: morphology, dynamics, and control. Water Resources Publications, Littleton, CO; 200 p.

Schuster, R.L. and Krizek, R.J. (eds.) 1978. Landslides: analysis and control. National Academy Sciences, Transportation Research Board Special Report No. 176; 234 p.

Selby, M.J. 1993. Hillslope materials and processes, 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press Inc., New York; 451 p.

Sibrava, V., Bowen, D.Q., and Richmond, D.Q. (eds.) 1986. Quaternary glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere: final report of the International Geological Correlation Programme, Project 24. Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 5, Pergamon Press, Oxford; 514 p.

Smith, G.D. 1978. The Andisol proposal. In: Leamy, M.L., Kinlock, D.I., and Parfitt, R.L. International Committee on Andisols – Final Report. Soil Management Support Services Technical Monograph #20 (p. 5). USDA – Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D.C.

Soil Science Society of America. 2001. Glossary of soil science terms. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI; 135 p.

Soil Survey Division Staff. 1993. Soil survey manual. Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook No. 18, U.S. Gov Print Office, Washington, DC; 437 p.

Soil Survey Staff. 1994. Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 6th Ed. USDA - Natural Resources Conservation Service.

Soil Survey Staff. 1998. Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 8th Ed. USDA - Natural Resources Conservation Service.

Soil Survey Staff. 1999. Soil taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. 2nd edition. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook 436.

Sposito, G. 1989. The chemistry of soils. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford; 277 p.

Strahler, A.N. and Strahler, A.H. 1989. Elements of physical geography, 4th Ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY.

Subaqueous Soils Subcommittee. 2005. Glossary of terms for subaqueous soils, landscapes, landforms, and parent materials of estuaries and lagoons. National Cooperative Soil Survey Conference, USDA-NRCS, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE.

Sugden, D.E. and John, B.S. 1976. Glaciers and landscape, a geomorphological approach. Halsted Press, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY; 376 p.

Summer, M.E. and Stewart, B.A. (eds.) 1992. Soil crusting in Australia. In: Soil crusting: chemical and physical process. Advances in Soil Science, Lewis Publishing, Boca Raton, FL.

Trewartha, G.T., Robinson, A.H., Hammond, E.H., and Horn, A.T. 1976. Fundamentals of physical geography, 3rd Ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.; 384 p.

Turner, A.K., and Schuster, R.L. (eds.) 1996. Landslides: investigations and mitigation. National Research Council, Transportation Research Board Special Report No. 247; National Academy Press, Washington, DC; 673 p.

U.S. Geological Survey. 1970. The national atlas of the United States. (sheets 61-63: Classes of Land-Surface from E.H. Hammond). U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, DC; 417 p.

Wahrhaftig, C. 1965. Physiographic divisions of Alaska. US Geological Survey, USGS Professional Paper # 482; 52 p.

Washburn, A.L. 1973. Periglacial processes and environments. St. Martin's Press, New York, NY; 320 p.

Washburn, A.L. 1980. Geocryology. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.; 406 p.

Wells, D.V., Conkwright, R.D., Hill, J.M., and Park, M.J. 1994. The surficial sediments of Assawoman Bay and Isle of Wight Bay, Maryland: Physical and chemical characteristics. Coastal and Estuarine Geology File Report Number 94-2, Maryland Geological Survey, Baltimore, MD.

White, W.B. 1988. Geomorphology and hydrology of karst terrains. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, NY; 478 p.

Wright, H.E. (ed.) 1983. Late-Quaternary environments of the United States, Vol. 2: the Holocene. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN. 277 p.

Wysocki, D.A., Schoeneberger, P.J., and LaGarry, H.E. 2000. Geomorphology of soil landscapes. In: Sumner, M.E., editor. Handbook of Soil Science. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL. ISBN: 0-8493-3136-6
 

(b) Classic references

[Significant references that are out of print  and no longer commercially available]

Balster, C.A. and Parsons, R.B. 1968. Geomorphology and soils, Willamette Valley, Oregon. Oregon State Univ., Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station Special Report 265, Corvallis, OR; 31 p.

Buol, S.W., Hole, F.D., and McCracken, R.J. 1973 (1st ed), 1980 (2nd ed.), 1989 (3rd ed.). Soil genesis and classification. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA.
(now Buol, Southard, Graham, and McDaniel 2003)

Birkeland, P.W. 1974. Pedology, weathering and geomorphic research. Oxford University Press, New York, NY ; 285 p. (see Birkeland, 1999)

Birkeland, P.W. 1984. Soils and geomorphology, 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press; 386 p. (see Birkeland, 1999)

Bryan, K. 1946. Cryopedology: The study of frozen ground and intensive frost-action, with suggestions on nomenclature. American Journal of Science, V. 244; 642 p.

Clayton, L. and Freers, T.F. (eds.) 1967. Glacial geology of the Missouri Coteau and adjacent areas. Guidebook 18th annual field conference Midwest Friends of the Pleistocene. North Dakota Geological Survey Miscellaneous Series #30, 170 p.

Compton, R.R. 1962. Manual of field geology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY; 378 p. (use Compton, 1985, Geology in the Field).

Compton, R.R. 1977. Interpreting the earth. Harcourt-Brace-Jovanovich, New York, NY; 554 p.

Daniels, R.B. and Jordan, R.H. 1966. Physiographic history and the soils, entrenched stream systems, and gullies, Harrison County, Iowa. USDA - Soil Conservation Service, Technical Bulletin 1348; 133 p.

Fairbridge, R.W. (ed.) 1968. The encyclopedia of geomorphology. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series, Vol. 3. McGraw-Hill Company, Inc., New York, NY; 1295 p.

Fenneman, N.M. 1931. Physiography of the western United States. McGraw-Hill Co., New York, NY; 534 p.

Fenneman, N.M. 1938. Physiography of the eastern United States. McGraw-Hill Co., New York, NY.; 714 p.

Fenneman, N.M. 1946. (reprinted 1957). Physical divisions of the United States. US Geological Survey, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC; 1 sheet; 1: 7,000,000.

Flint, R.F. 1971. Glacial and Quaternary geology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY; 892 p.

Freeze, A.L. and Cherry, J.A. 1979. Groundwater. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.; 604 p.

Gary, M., McAfee, R., Jr., Wolf, C.L. (eds.) 1974. Glossary of geology. American Geological Institute, Falls Church, VA; 805 p. (use Bates & Jackson, 1987).

Green, J., and Short, N.M. 1971. Volcanic landforms and surface features: A photographic atlas and glossary. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY. 519 p.

Hawley, J.W. and Parsons, R.B. 1980. Glossary of selected geomorphic and geologic terms. Mimeo. U.S. Dept. Agric., Soil Cons. Serv., West Technical Center, Portland, OR; 30 p. (replaced by National Soil Survey Handbook (NSSH), Part 629, 1995).

Hunt, C.B. 1967. Physiography of the United States. W.H. Freeman & Co., London; 480 p.

Monkhouse, F. 1978. Dictionary of geography. Aldine Publ. Co., Chicago, IL.; 344 p.

Monkhouse, F. and Small, J. 1978. Dictionary of the natural environment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY; 320 p.

Peterson, F.F. 1981. Landforms of the Basin and Range Province defined for soil survey. Nevada Agricultural Experiment Station, Technical Bulletin No. 28, Reno, NV; 52 p.

Ruhe, R.V. 1969. Quaternary landscapes in Iowa. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA; 255 p.

Ruhe, R.V. 1975. Geomorphology: geomorphic processes and surficial geology. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, MA; 246 p.

Ruhe, R.V., Daniels, R.B., and Cady, J.G. 1967. Landscape evolution and soil formation in southeastern Iowa. USDA - Soil Conservation Service Technical Bulletin 1349; 242 p.

Russel, R.J. (ed.) 1968. Glossary of terms used in fluvial, deltaic, and coastal morphology. Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA.; Coastal Studies Institute Technical Report No. 63; 97 p.

Soil Survey Staff. 1975. Soil Taxonomy. A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. USDA - Soil Conservation Service, Agricultural Handbook #436, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 754 p.

Strahler, A.N. 1946 Geomorphic terminology and classification of land masses. Journal of Geology 54:35-42.

Thornbury, W.D. 1969. Principles of geomorphology; 2nd Ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY; 594 p.

Thornbury, W.D. 1965. Regional geomorphology of the United States. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY; 609 p.

Varnes, D. 1978. Slope movement types and processes. In: Schuster, R.L. and R.J. Krizek (eds.) 1978. Landslides: analysis and control. National Academy Sciences, Transportation Research Board Special Report No. 176; 234 p.
 

Exhibit 629-1—Lists of Landscape, Landform, Microfeature, and Anthropogenic Feature Terms Contained in the Glossary

(Subset lists arranged by geomorphic process or other groups.) Geomorphic process is a framework for the Geomorphic Description System (Schoeneberger and Wysocki, 2012).

Note: Words enclosed in brackets are considered part of the name of a term such as “bay [coast]”. Words enclosed in parentheses are only accessory information and are not part of the name of a term such as “(water body; also Landform)”. Following the terms are letters for the corresponding shorthand code such as BO for the landscape term “bolson”).

  1. Alphabetical Lists (Landscapes, Landforms, Microfeatures, Anthropogenic Features).

    1. Landscapes (broad or unique regional groups of spatially-associated landforms).
alluvial plain AP
alluvial plain remnant AR
badlands BA
bajada (also Landform) BJ
barrier island (also Landform) BI
basin BS
basin floor (also Landform) BC
batholith BL
bay [coast] (water body; also Landform) BY
bolson BO
breached anticline (also Landform) BD
breaklands BR
breaks (also Landform) BK
caldera (also Landform) CD
canyonlands CL
coastal plain (also Landform) CP
cockpit karst CPK
cone karst CK
continental glacier CG
delta plain (also Landform) DP
dissected breaklands DB
dissected plateau DI
drumlin field DF
dune field (also Landform) DU
estuary (water body; also Landform) ES
everglades EG
fan piedmont (also Landform) FP
fault-block mountains FM
fluviokarst FK
fluviomarine terrace (also Landform) FT
fold-thrust hills FTH
foothills FH
glaciokarst GK
gulf (water body; also Landform) GU
hills (singular = Landform) HI
ice-margin complex IC
intermontane basin (also Landform) IB
island (also Landform) IS
karst KR
kegel karst KK
lagoon (water body; also Landform) LG
lake plain (also Landform) LP
lava field (also Landform) LF
lava plain (also Landform) LV
lava plateau (also Landform) LL
lowland LW
marine terrace (also Landform) MT
meander belt MB
mountain range MR
mountain system MS
mountains (singular = Landform) MO
ocean (water body) OC
outwash plain (also Landform) OP
peninsula PE
piedmont PI
piedmont slope PS
plains (singular = Landform) PL
plateau (also Landform) PT
rift valley RF
river valley (also Landform) RV
sand plain SP
sandhills SH
scabland SC
sea (water body; also Landform) SEA
semi-bolson SB
shield volcano (also Landform) SV
shore complex (also Landform) SX
sinkhole karst SK
sound (water body; also Landform) SO
strait (water body; also Landform) ST
tableland TB
thermokarst TK
till plain (also Landform) TP
tower karst TW
upland UP
valley (also Landform) VA
volcanic field (also Landform) VF
  1. Landforms (natural, individual, earth-surface features mappable at soil survey scales).
aa lava flow ALF
alas AA
alluvial cone AC
alluvial fan AF
alluvial flat AP
alpine glacier AG
anticline AN
arete AR
arroyo AY
ash field AQ
ash flow AS
atoll AT
avalanche chute AL
axial stream AX
back-barrier beach BBB
back-barrier flat BBF
backshore AZ
backswamp BS
bajada (also Landscape) BJ
ballena BL
ballon BV
bar BR
barchan dune BQ
barrier beach BB
barrier beach [relict] BBR
barrier cove BAC
barrier flat BF
barrier island (also Landscape) BI
basin floor (also Landscape) BC
basin-floor remnant BD
bay [coast] (water body; also Landscape) BAY
bay [geom.] BYG
bay bottom BOT
bayou (water body) WC
beach BE
beach plain BP
beach ridge BG
beach terrace BT
berm BM
beveled base BVB
blind valley VB
block field BW
block glide BLG
block lava flow BLF
block stream BX
blowout BY
bluff BN
bog BO
box canyon BOX
braided stream BZ
breached anticline (also Landscape) BRL
breaks (also Landscape) BK
broad interstream divide BID
butte BU
caldera (also Landscape) CD
canyon CA
canyon bench CYB
canyon wall CW
Carolina Bay CB
channel (also Microfeature) CC
chenier CG
chenier plain CH
cinder cone CI
cirque CQ
cirque floor CFL
cirque headwall CHW
cirque platform CPF
cliff CJ
climbing dune CDU
closed depression (also Microfeature) CLD
coastal plain (also Landscape) CP
cockpit COC
col CL
collapse sinkhole CSH
collapsed ice-floored lakebed CK
collapsed ice-walled lakebed CN
collapsed lake plain CS
collapsed outwash plain CT
colluvial apron COA
complex landslide CLS
coral island COR
coulee CE
cove CO
cove [water] (water body) COW
crag and tail CAT
creep CRE
crevasse filling CF
cuesta CU
cuesta valley CUV
cutoff CV
debris avalanche DA
debris fall DEF
debris flow DF
debris slide DS
debris spread DES
debris topple DET
deflation basin DB
deflation flat DFL
delta DE
delta plain (also Landscape) DC
depression DP
diapir DD
diatreme DT
dike DK
dip slope DL
disintegration moraine DM
distributary DIS
divide DN
dome DO
drainageway DQ
drainhead complex DRC
draw DW
drumlin DR
drumlinoid ridge DRR
dune DU
dune field (also Landscape) DUF
dune lake (water body) DUL
dune slack (also Microfeature) DUS
earth spread ESP
earth topple ETO
earthflow EF
end moraine EM
ephemeral stream (also Microfeature) EPS
eroded fan remnant EFR
eroded fan remnant sideslope EFS
erosion remnant ER
escarpment ES
esker EK
estuary (water body; also Landscape) WD
faceted spur FS
fall FB
falling dune FDU
fan FC
fan apron FA
fan collar FCO
fan piedmont (also Landscape) FG
fan remnant FH
fan skirt FI
fanhead trench FF
fault block FAB
fault zone FAZ
fault-line scarp FK
fen FN
fissure vent FIV
fjord (water body) FJ
flat FL
flatwoods FLW
flood plain FP
flood-plain playa FY
flood-plain splay FM
flood-plain step FO
flood-tidal delta FTD
flood-tidal delta flat FTF
flood-tidal delta slope FTS
flow FLO
flute (also Microfeature) FU
fluviomarine bottom FMB
fluviomarine terrace (also Landscape) FMT
fold FQ
foredune FD
fosse FV
free face (also Geom. Component – Hills, Mountains) FW
fringe-tidal marsh FTM
gap GA
geyser GE
geyser basin GEB
geyser cone GEC
giant ripple GC
glacial drainage channel GD
glacial lake (water body) WE
glacial lake [relict] GL
glacial-valley floor GVF
glacial-valley wall GVW
glacier GLA
gorge GO
graben GR
ground moraine GM
gulch GT
gulf (water body; also Landscape) GU
gut [channel] (water body; also Microfeature) WH
gut [valley] GV
half graben HG
hanging valley HV
headland HE
head-of-outwash HD
headwall HW
high hill HH
highmoor bog HB
hill (plural=Landscape) HI
hillslope HS
hogback HO
homoclinal ridge HCR
homocline HC
horn HR
horst HT
hot spring HP
ice pressure ridge IPR
ice-contact slope ICS
ice-marginal stream IMS
ice-pushed ridge IPU
inlet IL
inselberg IN
inset fan IF
interdrumlin IDR
interdune (also Microfeature) ID
interfluve (also Geom. Component - Hills) IV
interior valley INV
intermittent stream (also Microfeature) INT
intermontane basin (also Landscape) IB
island (also Landscape) IS
kame KA
kame moraine KM
kame terrace KT
karst cone KC
karst lake KAL
karst tower KTO
karst valley KVA
karstic marine terrace KMT
kettle KE
kipuka KIP
knob KN
knoll KL
lagoon (water body; also Landscape) WI
lagoon bottom LBO
lagoon channel LCH
lagoon [relict] LAR
lahar LA
lake (water body) WJ
lake plain (also Landscape) LP
lake terrace LT
lakebed (water body) LB
lakebed [relict] LBR
lakeshore LF
landslide LK
lateral moraine LM
lateral spread LS
lava dome LD
lava field (also Landscape) LFI
lava flow LC
lava flow unit (also Microfeature) LFU
lava plain (also Landscape) LN
lava plateau (also Landscape) LL
lava trench (also Microfeature) LTR
lava tube LTU
ledge LE
levee LV
loess bluff LO
loess hill LQ
longitudinal dune LDU
longshore bar LON
longshore bar [relict] LR
louderback LU
low hill LH
lowmoor bog LX
maar MAA
main scarp (also Microfeature) MAS
mainland cove MAC
mangrove swamp MAN
marine lake (water body) ML
marine terrace (also Landscape) MT
marsh MA
mawae MAW
meander MB
meander scar MS
meander scroll MG
meandering channel MC
medial moraine MH
mesa ME
meteorite crater MEC
mogote MOG
monadnock MD
monocline MJ
moraine MU
mountain (plural = Landscape) MM
mountain slope MN
mountain valley MV
mud pot MP
mudflow MW
muskeg MX
natural levee NL
nearshore zone NZ
nearshore zone [relict] NZR
notch NO
nunatak NU
open depression (also Microfeature) ODE
outwash delta OD
outwash fan OF
outwash plain (also Landscape) OP
outwash terrace OT
overflow stream channel OSC
oxbow OX
oxbow lake (water body) WK
paha PA
pahoehoe lava flow PAF
paleoterrace PTR
parabolic dune PB
parna dune PD
partial ballena PF
patterned ground PG
pavement karst PAV
peak PK
peat plateau PJ
pediment PE
perennial stream (water body; also Microfeature) PS
pillow lava flow PIF
pingo PI
pinnacle (also Microfeature) PIN
pitted outwash plain PM
pitted outwash terrace POT
plain (plural = Landscape) PN
plateau (also Landscape) PT
playa PL
playa dune (also Microfeature) PDU
playa floor (also Microfeature) PFL
playa lake (water body) WL
playa rim (also Microfeature) PRI
playa slope (also Microfeature) PSL
playa step (also Microfeature) PST
plug dome PP
pluvial lake (water body) PLL
pluvial lake [relict] PQ
pocosin PO
point bar PR
point bar [coastal] PRC
pothole (also Microfeature) PH
pothole lake (water body) WN
proglacial lake (water body) WO
proglacial lake [relict] PGL
pyroclastic flow PCF
pyroclastic surge PCS
raised beach RA
raised bog RB
ravine RV
recessional moraine RM
reef RF
ribbed fen RG
ridge RI
rim RJ
rise (also Microfeature; also Geom. Component – Flat Plains) RIS
river (water body) RIV
river valley (also Landscape) RVV
roche moutonnée (also Microfeature) RN
rock glacier RO
rock pediment ROP
rock spread ROS
rock topple ROT
rockfall (also Microfeature) ROF
rockfall avalanche RFA
rotational debris slide RDS
rotational earth slide RES
rotational rock slide RRS
rotational slide RTS
sabkha SAB
saddle SA
sag (also Microfeature) SAG
sag pond (water body; also Microfeature) SGP
salt marsh SM
salt pond (water body; also Microfeature) WQ
sand flow (also Microfeature) RW
sand ramp SAR
sand sheet RX
scarp RY
scarp slope RS
scree slope SCS
sea (water body; also Landscape) SEA
sea cliff RZ
seep (also Microfeature) SEE
seif dune SD
semi-open depression SOD
shield volcano (also Landscape) SHV
shoal (water body) WR
shoal [relict] SE
shore SHO
shore complex (also Landscape) SHC
sill RT
sinkhole SH
slackwater (water body) WS
slickrock (also Microfeature) SLK
slide SJ
slot canyon SLC
slough (water body) SL
slump block SN
snowfield SNF
soil fall SOF
solution platform SOP
solution sinkhole SOS
sound (water body; also Landscape) SO
spit SP
spur SQ
stack [coast] SRC
stack [geom.] SR
star dune SDU
steptoe ST
stock STK
stoss and lee SAL
strait (water body; also Landscape) STT
strand plain SS
strath terrace SU
stratovolcano SV
stream (water body) STR
stream terrace SX
strike valley STV
string bog SY
structural bench SB
submerged back-barrier beach SBB
submerged mainland beach SMB
submerged point bar [coast] SPB
submerged wave-built terrace SWT
submerged wave-cut platform SWP
submerged-upland tidal marsh STM
swale (also Microfeature) SC
swallow hole TB
swamp SW
syncline SZ
talus cone TC
talus slope TAS
tarn (water body; also Microfeature) TAR
terminal moraine TA
terrace TE
terrace remnant TER
thermokarst depression (also Microfeature) TK
thermokarst lake (water body) WV
tidal flat TF
tidal inlet TI
tidal inlet [relict] (water body) TIR
tidal marsh TM
till plain (also Landscape) TP
till-floored lake plain TLP
toe (also Microfeature) TOE
tombolo TO
topple TOP
tor TQ
Toreva block TOR
translational debris slide TDS
translational earth slide TES
translational rock slide TRS
translational slide TS
transverse dune TD
trough TR
tunnel valley TV
tunnel-valley lake (water body) TVL
underfit stream US
U-shaped valley UV
valley (also Landscape) VA
valley flat VF
valley floor VL
valley side VS
valley train VT
valley-border surfaces VBS
valley-floor remnant VFR
volcanic cone VC
volcanic crater CR
volcanic dome VD
volcanic field (also Landscape) VOF
volcanic neck VON
volcanic pressure ridge (also Micro.) PU
volcano VO
V-shaped valley VV
wash WA
washover fan WF
washover-fan flat WFF
washover-fan slope WFS
water-lain moraine WM
wave-built terrace WT
wave-cut platform WP
wave-worked till plain WW
wind gap WG
window WIN
wind-tidal flat WTF
yardang (also Microfeature) YD
yardang trough (also Microfeature) YDT
  1. Microfeatures (discrete, natural, earth-surface features too small to delineate at common survey scales).

    1. Common microfeatures (not used in association with the landform “patterned ground”)
bar BA
channel (also Landform) CH
closed depression (also Landform) CD
corda CO
cutter CU
dune slack (also Landform) DS
dune traces DT
earth pillar EP
ephemeral stream (also Landform) ES
finger ridge FR
flute (also Landform) FL
frost boil FB
glacial groove GG
groove GR
gully GU
gut [channel] (water body; also Landform) WH
hillock HI
hoodoo HO
ice wedge IWD
ice wedge cast IWC
interdune (also Landform) ID
intermittent stream (water body; also Landform) INT
karren KA
lava flow unit (also Landform) LFU
lava trench (also Landform) LT
main scarp (also Landform) MAS
minor scarp MIS
mound MO
nivation hollow NH
open depression (also Landform) OP
perennial stream (water body; also Landform) PS
pinnacle (also Landform) PI
playa dune (also Landform) PD
playa floor (also Landform) PF
playa rim (also Landform) PR
playa slope (also Landform) PSL
playa step (also Landform) PST
playette PL
pond (water body) PON
pool (water body) POO
pothole (also Landform) PH
rib RB
rill RL
ripple mark RM
rise (also Landform; ; also Geom. Component – Flat Plains) RIS
roche moutonnée (also Landform) POC
rockfall (also Landform) ROF
sag (also Landform) SAG
sag pond (water body; also Landform) SP
salt pond (water body; also Landform) WQ
sand boil SB
sand flow (also Landform) RW
seep (also Landform) SE
shoreline SH
shrub-coppice dune SCD
slickrock (also Landform) SLK
slip face SF
solifluction lobe SOL
solifluction sheet SS
solifluction terrace ST
solution chimney SCH
solution corridor SCO
solution fissure SOF
solution pipe SOP
spatter cone SPC
spiracle SPI
strandline SL
swale (also Landform) SW
swash zone SZ
tank (water body) TA
tarn (water body; also Landform) TN
terracettes TER
thermokarst depression (also Landform) TK
toe (also Landform) TOE
tree-tip mound TTM
tree-tip pit TTP
tumulus (tumuli = plural) TU
vernal pool (seasonal water body) VP
volcanic pressure ridge (also Landform) VPR
yardang (also Landform) YD
yardang trough (also Landform) YDT
zibar ZB
  1. Periglacial patterned ground microfeatures [used in association with the landform “patterned ground”; Singular forms (e.g., circle) are used for a single feature at point data scale whereas plural forms (e.g., circles) are used for map unit components.]
circle CI
earth hummock EH
high-center polygon HCP
ice wedge polygon IWP
low-center polygon LCP
nonsorted circle NSC
palsa (= peat hummock) PA
polygon PYG
sorted circle SCI
stripe STR
turf hummock TH
  1. Other patterned ground microfeatures [used in association with the landform “patterned ground”; Singular forms (e.g., hummock) are used for a single feature at point data scale whereas plural forms (e.g., hummocks) are used for map unit components.]
bar and channel BC
circular gilgai CG
elliptical gilgai EG
gilgai GI
hummock HU
linear gilgai LG
mima mound MM
pimple mound PM
puff PU
  1. Anthropogenic Features [discrete, artificial (human-made), earth-surface features].
anthroscape ANT
artificial collapsed depression ACD
artificial levee AL
beveled cut BC
bioswale BS
borrow pit BP
burial mound BM
conservation terrace (modern) CT
cut (railroad, etc.) CUT
cutbank CB
ditch DI
double-bedding mound DBM
drainage ditch DD
dredge spoil bank DSB
dredged channel DC
dredge-deposit shoal DDS
dump DU
fill FI
filled marshland FM
floodway FW
furrow FR
gravel pit GP
headwall (anthro) HW
hillslope terrace (ancient) HT
impact crater IC
interfurrow IF
leveled land LVL
log landing LL
midden MI
openpit mine OM
polder POL
pond (human-made) PO
quarry QU
railroad bed RRB
reclaimed land RL
rice paddy RP
road bed RB
road cut RC
sand pit SP
sanitary landfill SL
scalped area SA
sewage lagoon SWL
skid trail ST
spoil bank SB
spoil pile SPP
surface mine SM
tillage mound TM
truncated soil TS

 

  1. Geomorphic Process and Other Groups [Landscape, Landform, and Microfeature terms grouped by geomorphic process (e.g., Fluvial) or by common settings (e.g., Water Bodies). These lists provide common examples, but are not mutually exclusive so some features occur in more than one group.]
  1. Coastal Marine and Estuarine (wave or tidal control on near-shore / shallow marine).

Landscapes:

barrier island (also Landform) BI
bay [coast] (water body; also Landform) BY
coastal plain (also Landform) CP
delta plain (also Landform) DP
estuary (water body; also Landform) ES
fluviomarine terrace (also Landform) FT
gulf (water body; also Landform) GU
island (also Landform) IS
lagoon (water body; also Landform) LG
lowland LW
marine terrace (also Landform) MT
ocean (water body) OC
peninsula PE
sea (water body; also Landform) SEA
shore complex (also Landform) SX
sound (water body; also Landform) SO
strait (water body; also Landform) ST


Landforms:

atoll AT
back-barrier beach BBB
back-barrier flat BBF
backshore AZ
bar BR
barrier beach BB
barrier cove BAC
barrier flat BF
barrier island (also Landscape) BI
bay [coast] (water body; also Landscape) BAY
bay bottom BOT
beach BE
beach plain BP
beach ridge BG
beach terrace BT
berm BM
bluff BN
chenier CG
chenier plain CH
coastal plain (also Landscape) CP
coral island COR
cove [water] (water body) COW
delta DE
delta plain (also Landscape) DC
drainhead complex DRC
estuary (water body; also Landform) WD
flat FL
flatwoods FLW
fluviomarine terrace (also Landscape) FMT
foredune FD
fringe-tidal marsh FTM
gulf (water body; also Landscape) GU
gut [channel] (also Microfeature) WH
headland HE
island (also Landscape) IS
lagoon (water body; also Landscape) WI
lagoon [relict] LAR
longshore bar LON
longshore bar [relict] LR
mangrove swamp MAN
marine lake (water body) ML
marine terrace (also Landscape) MT
nearshore zone NZ
nearshore zone [relict] NZR
point bar [coastal] PRC
raised beach RA
reef RF
sabkha SAB
salt marsh SM
sea (water body; also Landscape) SEA
sea cliff RZ
semi-open depression SOD
shoal [relict] SE
shore SHO
shore complex (also Landscape) SHC
sound (water body; also Landscape) SO
spit SP
stack [coast] SRC
strait (water body; also Landscape) STT
strand plain SS
submerged-upland tidal marsh STM
tidal flat TF
tidal inlet TI
tidal inlet [relict] TIR
tidal marsh TM
tombolo TO
washover fan WF
wave-built terrace WT
wave-cut platform WP
wind-tidal flat WTF


Microfeatures:

gut [channel] (also Landform) WH
ripple mark RM
shoreline SH
swash zone SZ
  1. Lacustrine (related to inland water bodies).

Landscapes:

bay [coast] (also Landform) BY
delta plain (also Landform) DP
island (also Landform) IS
lake plain (also Landform) LP
peninsula PE
shore complex (also Landform) SX


Landforms:

backshore AZ
bar (also Microfeature) BR
barrier beach BB
barrier flat BF
barrier island BI
bay [coast] (water body; also Landscape) BAY
beach BE
beach plain BP
beach ridge BG
beach terrace BT
berm BM
bluff BN
delta DE
delta plain (also Landscape) DC
flat FL
flood-plain playa FY
foredune FD
headland HE
island (also Landscape) IS
karst lake KAL
lagoon WI
lagoon [relict] LAR
lake (water body) WJ
lake plain (also Landscape) LP
lake terrace LT
lakebed LB
lakebed [relict] LBR
lakeshore LF
longshore bar LON
longshore bar [relict] LR
oxbow lake WK
playa PL
playa floor (also Microfeature) PFL
playa lake WL
playa rim (also Microfeature) PRI
playa slope (also Microfeature) PSL
playa step (also Microfeature) PST
pluvial lake PLL
pluvial lake [relict] PQ
raised beach RA
sabkha SAB
salt marsh SM
shoal [relict] SE
shore SHO
shore complex (also Landscape) SHC
spit SP
stack [coast] SRC
strand plain SS
till-floored lake plain TLP
tombolo TO
water-lain moraine WM
wave-built terrace WT
wave-cut platform WP
wave-worked till plain WW


Microfeatures:

bar (also Landform) BA
playa floor (also Landform) PF
playa rim (also Landform) PR
playa slope (also Landform) PSL
playa step (also Landform) PST
playette PL
ripple mark RM
shoreline SH
strandline SL
swash zone SZ
vernal pool VP
  1. Fluvial [dominantly related to concentrated water flow (channel flow); includes erosional and depositional features, but excluding glaciofluvial landforms (see Glacial), and permanent water features (see Water Bodies)].

Landscapes:

alluvial plain AP
alluvial plain remnant AR
badlands BA
bajada (also Landform) BJ
breaks BK
breaklands BR
canyonlands CL
delta plain (also Landform) DP
dissected breaklands DB
fan piedmont FP
meander belt MB
river valley (also Landform) RV
scabland SC


Landforms:

alluvial cone AC
alluvial fan AF
alluvial flat AP
arroyo AY
axial stream (water body) AX
backswamp BS
bajada (also Landscape) BJ
bar (also Microfeature) BR
basin-floor remnant BD
block stream BX
box canyon BOX
braided stream BZ
canyon CA
channel CC
coulee CE
cutoff CV
delta DE
delta plain (also Landscape) DC
drainageway DQ
drainhead complex DRC
draw DW
ephemeral stream (also Microfeature) EPS
fan apron FA
fan collar FCO
fan remnant FH
fan skirt FI
fanhead trench FF
flood plain FP
flood-plain playa FY
flood-plain splay FM
flood-plain step FO
giant ripple GC
gorge GO
gulch GT
gut [valley] GV
inset fan IF
intermittent stream (also Microfeature) INT
levee LV
meander scar MS
meander scroll MG
meandering channel MC
natural levee NL
overflow stream channel OSC
oxbow OX
paleoterrace PTR
point bar PR
ravine RV
river valley (also Landscape) RVV
semi-open depression SOD
slot canyon SLC
strath terrace SU
stream terrace SX
terrace remnant TER
valley flat VF
valley-border surfaces VBS
valley-floor remnant VFR
wash WA
wind gap WG


Microfeatures:

bar (also Landform) BA
bar and channel BC
channel CH
ephemeral stream (also Landform) ES
groove GR
gully GU
intermittent stream (also Landform) INT
ripple mark RM
swash zone SZ
  1. Solution (dominated by dissolution, and commonly, subsurface drainage).

Landscapes:

cockpit karst CPK
cone karst CK
fluviokarst FK
glaciokarst GK
karst KR
kegel karst KK
sinkhole karst SK
thermokarst TK
tower karst TW


Landforms:

blind valley VB
cockpit COC
collapse sinkhole CSH
interior valley INV
karst cone KC
karst lake (water body) KAL
karst tower KTO
karst valley KVA
karstic marine terrace KMT
mogote MOG
pavement karst PAV
pinnacle PIN
sinkhole SH
solution platform SOP
solution sinkhole SOS
swallow hole TB
thermokarst depression (also Microfeature) TK
yardang (also Microfeature) YD
yardang trough (also Microfeature) YDT


Microfeatures:

cutter CU
karren KA
solution chimney SCH
solution corridor SCO
solution fissure SOF
solution pipe SOP
thermokarst depression (also Landform) TK
yardang (also Landform) YD
yardang trough (also Landform) YDT
  1. Eolian (dominantly wind related erosion or deposition).

Landscapes:

dune field (also Landform) DU
sand plain SP
sandhills SH


Landforms:

barchan dune BQ
blowout BY
climbing dune CDU
deflation basin DB
deflation flat DFL
dune DU
dune field (also Landscape) DUF
dune lake (water body) DUL
dune slack (also Microfeature) DUS
falling dune FDU
foredune FD
interdune (also Microfeature) ID
loess bluff LO
loess hill LQ
longitudinal dune LDU
paha PA
parabolic dune PB
parna dune PD
playa dune (also Microfeature) PDU
sabkha SAB
sand ramp SAR
sand sheet RX
seif dune SD
slickrock (also Microfeature) SLK
star dune SDU
transverse dune TD
yardang (also Microfeature) YD
yardang trough (also Microfeature) YDT


Microfeatures:

dune slack (also Landform) DS
dune traces DT
interdune (also Landform) ID
playa dune (also Landform) PD
playette PL
shrub-coppice dune SCD
slickrock (also Landform) SLK
slip face SF
yardang (also Landform) YD
yardang trough (also Landform) YDT
zibar ZB
  1. Glacial (directly related to glaciers; includes glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine, glaciomarine, and outwash features).

Landscapes:

continental glacier CG
drumlin field DF
glaciokarst GK
hills HI
ice-margin complex IC
outwash plain (also Landform) OP
till plain (also Landform) TP


Landforms:

alpine glacier AG
arete AR
cirque CQ
cirque floor CFL
cirque headwall CHW
cirque platform CPF
col CL
collapsed ice-floored lakebed CK
collapsed ice-walled lakebed CN
collapsed lake plain CS
collapsed outwash plain CT
crag and tail CAT
crevasse filling CF
disintegration moraine DM
drumlin DR
drumlinoid ridge DRR
end moraine EM
esker EK
fjord (water body) FJ
flute (also Microfeature) FU
fosse FV
giant ripple GC
glacial drainage channel GD
glacial lake (water body) WE
glacial lake [relict] GL
glacial-valley floor GVF
glacial-valley wall GVW
glacier GLA
ground moraine GM
hanging valley HV
head-of-outwash HD
ice pressure ridge IPR
ice-contact slope ICS
ice-marginal stream IMS
ice-pushed ridge IPU
interdrumlin IDR
kame KA
kame moraine KM
kame terrace KT
kettle KE
lateral moraine LM
medial moraine MH
moraine MU
nunatak NU
outwash delta OD
outwash fan OF
outwash plain (also Landscape) OP
outwash terrace OT
paha PA
pitted outwash plain PM
pitted outwash terrace POT
pothole (also Microfeature) PH
pothole lake (intermittent water) WN
proglacial lake (water body) WO
proglacial lake [relict] PGL
recessional moraine RM
roche moutonnée (also Microfeature) RN
rock glacier RO
snowfield SNF
stoss and lee SAL
swale (also Microfeature) SC
tarn (water body; also Microfeature) TAR
terminal moraine TA
till plain (also Landscape) TP
till-floored lake plain TLP
tunnel valley TV
tunnel-valley lake (water body) TVL
underfit stream US
U-shaped valley UV
valley train VT
water-lain moraine WM
wave-worked till plain WW


Microfeatures:

flute (also Landform) FL
glacial groove GG
ice wedge IWD
ice wedge cast IWC
nivation hollow NH
pothole (also Landform) PH
roche moutonnée (also Landform) POC
swale (also Landform) SW
tarn (water body; also Landform) TN
  1. Periglacial [related to non-glacial, cold climate (modern or relict), including periglacial forms of patterned ground. Note: consider “patterned ground” as a Landform, but treat specific types of patterned ground, (singular or plural), as Microfeatures.]

Landscapes:

coastal plain CP
hills HI
plains PL
thermokarst TK


Landforms:

alas AA
block field BW
muskeg MX
patterned ground PG
peat plateau PJ
pingo PI
rock glacier RO
string bog SY
thermokarst depression (also Microfeature) TK
thermokarst lake (water body) WV


Microfeatures:

circle CI
earth hummock EH
frost boil FB
high-center polygon HCP
ice wedge IWD
ice wedge cast IWC
ice wedge polygon IWP
low-center polygon LCP
nivation hollow NH
nonsorted circle NSC
palsa (= peat hummock) PA
polygon PYG
solifluction lobe SOL
solifluction sheet SS
solifluction terrace ST
sorted circle SCI
stripe STR
thermokarst depression (also Landform) TK
turf hummock TH
  1. Mass Movement (Mass Wasting) (dominated by gravity, including creep forms).

Landscapes: (these generic landscapes are not mass movement features per say, but are commonly modified by, and include localized areas of, mass movement).

breaklands BR
dissected breaklands DB
foothills FH
hills HI
mountain range MR
mountains MO


Landforms:

ash flow AS
avalanche chute AL
block glide BLG
block stream BX
colluvial apron COA
complex landslide CLS
creep CRE
debris avalanche DA
debris fall DEF
debris flow DF
debris slide DS
debris spread DES
debris topple DET
earth spread ESP
earth topple ETO
earthflow EF
fall FB
flow FLO
lahar LA
landslide LK
lateral spread LS
main scarp (also Microfeature) MAS
mudflow MW
rock glacier RO
rock spread ROS
rock topple ROT
rockfall (also Microfeature) ROF
rockfall avalanche RFA
rotational debris slide RDS
rotational earth slide RES
rotational rock slide RRS
rotational slide RTS
sag (also Microfeature) SAG
sag pond (water body; also Micro.) SGP
sand flow RW
scree slope SCS
slide SJ
slump block SN
soil fall SOF
talus cone TC
talus slope TAS
toe (also Microfeature) TOE
topple TOP
Toreva block TOR
translational debris slide TDS
translational earth slide TES
translational rock slide TRS
translational slide TS


Microfeatures:

main scarp (also Landform) MAS
minor scarp MIS
rockfall (also Landform) ROF
sag (also Landform) SAG
sag pond (water body; also Landform) SP
sand boil SB
solifluction lobe SOL
solifluction sheet SS
solifluction terrace ST
terracette TER
toe (also Landform) TOE
  1. Volcanic and Hydrothermal

Landscapes:

caldera (also Landform) CD
foothills FH
hills HI
lava field (also Landform) LF
lava plain (also Landform) LV
lava plateau (also Landform) LL
mountains MO
shield volcano (also Landform) SV
volcanic field (also Landform) VF


Landforms:

aa lava flow ALF
ash field AQ
ash flow AS
block lava flow BLF
caldera (also Landscape) CD
cinder cone CI
diatreme DT
dike DK
fissure vent FIV
geyser GE
geyser basin GEB
geyser cone GEC
hot spring HP
kipuka KIP
lahar LA
lava dome LD
lava field (also Landscape) LFI
lava flow LC
lava flow unit (also Microfeature) LFU
lava plain (also Landscape) LN
lava plateau (also Landscape) LL
lava trench (also Microfeature) LTR
lava tube LTU
louderback LU
maar MAA
mawae MAW
mud pot MP
pahoehoe lava flow PAF
pillow lava flow PIF
plug dome PP
pyroclastic flow PCF
pyroclastic surge PCS
shield volcano (also Landscape) SHV
steptoe ST
stratovolcano SV
volcanic cone VC
volcanic crater CR
volcanic dome VD
volcanic field (also Landscape) VOF
volcanic neck VON
volcanic pressure ridge (also Micro.) PU
volcano VO


Microfeatures:

corda CO
lava flow unit (also Landform) LFU
lava trench (also Landform) LT
spatter cone SPC
spiracle SPI
tumulus (tumuli = plural) TU
volcanic pressure ridge (also Landform) VPR
  1. Tectonic and Structural (related to regional or local bedrock structures, or crustal movement. In soil survey information, tectonic and structural features are only recognized if they have some expression at or near the land surface).

Landscapes:

basin floor BC
batholith BL
bolson BO
breached anticline (also Landform) BD
dissected plateau DI
fault-block mountains FM
fold-thrust hills FTH
foothills FH
hills HI
intermontane basin IB
mountain range MR
mountain system MS
mountains MO
piedmont slope PS
plateau PT
rift valley RF
semi-bolson SB
tableland TB
valley VA


Landforms:

anticline AN
breached anticline (also Landscape) BRL
canyon bench CYB
cuesta CU
cuesta valley CUV
diapir DD
dike DK
dip slope DL
dome DO
fault block FAB
fault zone FAZ
fault-line scarp FK
fold FQ
graben GR
half graben HG
hogback HO
homoclinal ridge HCR
homocline HC
horst HT
louderback LU
meteorite crater MEC
monocline MJ
rock pediment ROP
scarp slope RS
sill RT
stock STK
strike valley STV
structural bench SB
syncline SZ
window WIN


Microfeatures:

sand boil SB
  1. Slope (generic terms or those that describe slope form, geometry, or arrangement of land features, rather than any particular genesis or process).

Landscapes:

badlands BA
breached anticline (also Landform) BD
breaklands BR
breaks BK
canyonlands CL
dissected breaklands DB
dissected plateau DI
fault-block mountains FM
foothills FH
hills (singular = Landform) HI
mountain range MR
mountain system MS
mountains MO
piedmont PI
piedmont slope PS
plains (singular = Landform) PL
plateau (also Landform) PT
tableland TB
upland UP


Landforms:

beveled base BVB
block stream BX
bluff BN
breached anticline (also Landscape) BRL
broad interstream divide BID
butte BU
canyon bench CYB
canyon wall CW
cliff CJ
colluvial apron COA
cuesta CU
dome DO
escarpment ES
faceted spur FS
fault block FAB
fault-line scarp FK
free face (also Geom. Component – Hills, Mountains.) FW
gap GA
headwall HW
high hill HH
hill (plural = Landscape) HI
hillslope HS
hogback HO
interfluve (also Geom. Component - Hills) IV
knob KN
knoll KL
ledge LE
low hill LH
mesa ME
mountain (plural = Landscape) MM
mountain slope MN
mountain valley MV
notch NO
paha PA
peak PK
pediment PE
plain (plural = Landscape) PN
plateau (also Landscape) PT
ridge RI
rim RJ
rock pediment ROP
scarp RY
scarp slope RS
scree slope SCS
slickrock (also Microfeature) SLK
spur SQ
stack [geom.] SR
structural bench SB
talus cone TC
talus slope TAS
tor TQ
valley VA
valley-floor remnant VFR
wind gap WG


Microfeatures:

finger ridge FR
mound MO
rib RB
rill RL
slickrock (also Landform) SLK
  1. Erosional (related dominantly to water erosion but excluding perennial, concentrated channel flow (i.e., fluvial, glaciofluvial) or eolian erosion).

Landscapes:

badlands BA
breached anticline (also Landform) BD
breaklands BR
breaks BK
canyonlands CL
dissected breaklands DB
dissected plateau DI
foothills FH
hills HI
mountain range MR
mountains MO
piedmont PI
piedmont slope PS
plateau (also Landform) PT
tableland TB


Landforms:

ballena BL
ballon BV
basin-floor remnant BD
beveled base BVB
breached anticline (also Landscape) BRL
canyon bench CYB
canyon wall CW
col CL
colluvial apron COA
cuesta CU
cuesta valley CUV
eroded fan remnant EFR
eroded fan-remnant sideslope EFS
erosion remnant ER
free face (also Geom. Comp. – Hills, Mountains) FW
gap GA
hogback HO
inselberg IN
monadnock MD
notch NO
paha PA
partial ballena PF
peak PK
pediment PE
plateau (also Landscape) PT
rock pediment ROP
sabkha SAB
saddle SA
scarp slope RS
slickrock (also Microfeature) SLK
stack [geom.] SR
strike valley STV
structural bench SB
terrace remnant TER
tor TQ
valley-border surfaces VBS
valley-floor remnant VFR
wind gap WG
window WIN


Microfeatures:

earth pillar EP
finger ridge FR
groove GR
gully GU
hoodoo HO
pinnacle PI
rib RB
rill RL
slickrock (also Landform) SLK
swale SW
  1. Depressional (low area or declivity features, excluding permanent water bodies)

Landscapes:

basin BS
basin floor (also Landform) BC
bolson BO
breached anticline (also Landform) BD
breaklands BR
dissected breaklands DB
semi-bolson SB
valley VA


Landforms:

alluvial flat AP
basin floor (also Landscape) BC
basin-floor remnant BD
box canyon BOX
breached anticline (also Landscape) BRL
canyon CA
Carolina Bay CB
closed depression (also Microfeature) CLD
col CL
coulee CE
cove CO
cuesta valley CUV
depression DP
drainageway DQ
drainhead complex DRC
gap GA
gorge GO
gulch GT
gut [valley] GV
intermontane basin IB
kettle KE
mountain valley MV
open depression (also Microfeature) ODE
playa PL
playa floor (also Microfeature) PFL
playa rim (also Microfeature) PRI
playa slope (also Microfeature) PSL
playa step (also Microfeature) PST
pothole (also Microfeature) PH
pothole lake (intermittent water) WN
ravine RV
sabkha SAB
saddle SA
sag (also Microfeature) SAG
semi-open depression SOD
slot canyon SLC
strike valley STV
swale (also Microfeature) SC
trough TR
U-shaped valley UV
valley VA
valley floor VL
V-shaped valley VV


Microfeatures:

closed depression (also Landform) CD
open depression (also Landform) OP
playa floor (also Landform) PF
playa rim (also Landform) PR
playa slope (also Landform) PSL
playa step (also Landform) PST
playette PL
pothole (also Landform) PH
sag (also Landform) SAG
swale (also Landform) SW
tree-tip pit TTP
  1. Wetlands [related to vegetated and / or shallow wet areas, and wet soils. (Provisional list: conventional, geologic definitions; not legalistic or regulatory usage)].

Landscapes (generally, there is no appropriate Landscape term for wetlands; by default, choose the most appropriate Landscape term from another Process Environment or Other Grouping):

estuary (also Landform) ES
everglades EG


Landforms:

alas AA
backswamp BS
bog BO
Carolina Bay CB
dune slack (also Microfeature) DUS
ephemeral stream (also Microfeature) EPS
estuary (also Landscape) WD
fen FN
flood-plain playa FY
fringe-tidal marsh FTM
highmoor bog HB
intermittent stream (also Microfeature) INT
lowmoor bog LX
mangrove swamp MAN
marsh MA
muskeg MX
oxbow lake (intermittent water) WK
peat plateau PJ
playa (intermittent water) PL
pocosin PO
pothole (also Microfeature) PH
pothole lake (intermittent water) WN
raised bog RB
ribbed fen RG
sabkha SAB
salt marsh SM
slough (intermittent water) SL
string bog SY
swamp SW
tidal flat TF
tidal marsh TM


Microfeatures:

dune slack (also Landform) DS
ephemeral stream (also Landform) ES
intermittent stream (also Landform) INT
playette PL
pothole (also Landform) PH
vernal pool (seasonal water) VP
  1. Water Bodies [Discrete “surface water” features, primarily permanent open water, which in soil survey reports are commonly treated as the generic map unit “water” (e.g., lake), or as a spot / line symbol (e.g., perennial stream)]. Several water body“landscape” and “landform” terms are obviously not terrestrial, but are Earth surface features (e.g., ocean).

Landscapes:

bay [coast] (also Landform) BY
estuary (also Landform) ES
gulf (also Landform) GU
lagoon (also Landform) LG
ocean OC
sea (also Landform) SEA
sound (also Landform) SO
strait (also Landform) ST


Landforms:

axial stream AX
bay [coast] (also Landscape) BAY
bayou WC
cove [water] COW
dune lake DUL
estuary (also Landscape) WD
fjord FJ
glacial lake WE
gulf (also Landscape) GU
gut [channel] (also Microfeature) WH
ice-marginal stream IMS
inlet IL
lagoon (also Landscape) WI
lagoon channel LCH
lake WJ
lakebed LB
marine lake ML
nearshore zone NZ
oxbow lake WK
perennial stream (also Microfeature) PS
playa lake WL
pluvial lake PLL
pothole lake WN
proglacial lake WO
river RIV
sag pond (also Microfeature) SGP
salt pond (also Microfeature) WQ
sea (also Landscape) SEA
shoal WR
slackwater WS
slough SL
sound (also Landscape) SO
strait (also Landscape) STT
stream (permanent water) STR
tarn (also Microfeature) TAR
thermokarst lake WV
tidal inlet TI
tidal inlet [relict] TIR
tunnel-valley lake TVL


Microfeatures:

channel (permanent water) CH
gut [channel] (also Landform) WH
perennial stream (also Landform) PS
pond PON
pool POO
sag pond (also Landform) SP
salt pond (also Landform) WQ
tank TA
tarn (also Landform) TN
  1. Subaqueous Features [Discrete, relatively shallow underwater features that commonly can support rooted plants, and adjacent features, ordinarily found below permanent open water. Historically, in Soil Survey Reports these underwater features have been included in the generic map unit “water”]. Subaqueous “landscape” terms are obviously not terrestrial, but are Earth surface features.

Landscapes:

bay [coast] (water body; also Landform) BY
estuary (water body; also Landform) ES
gulf (water body; also Landform) GU
lagoon (water body; also Landform) LG
ocean (water body) OC
sea (water body; also Landform) SEA
sound (water body; also Landform) SO
strait (water body; also Landform) ST


Landforms:

barrier cove BAC
bay [coast] (water body; also Landscape) BAY
bay bottom BOT
cove [water] (water body) COW
estuary (water body; also Landscape) WD
flood-tidal delta FTD
flood-tidal delta flat FTF
flood-tidal delta slope FTS
fluviomarine bottom FMB
gulf (water body; also Landscape) GU
inlet IL
lagoon (water body; also Landscape) WI
lagoon bottom LBO
lagoon channel LCH
lake WJ
lakebed (water body) LB
longshore bar LON
mainland cove MAC
marine lake ML
nearshore zone NZ
reef RF
sea (water body; also Landscape) SEA
shoal WR
sound (water body; also Landscape) SO
strait (water body; also Landscape) STT
submerged back-barrier beach SBB
submerged mainland beach SMB
submerged point bar [coast] SPB
submerged wave-built terrace SWT
submerged wave-cut platform SWP
tidal inlet TI
tidal inlet [relict] TIR
washover-fan flat WFF
washover-fan slope WFS


Microfeatures:

channel (permanent water) CH
gut [channel] (water body) WH


Anthropogenic Features:

dredged channel DC
dredge-deposit shoal DDS

 

Exhibit 629-2—List of Materials or Material-Related, Structure, or Morphological-Feature Terms Contained in the Glossary

(NR - terms that are NOT RECOMMENDED; NP - terms that are NOT PREFERRED)

aa lava ablation till - NP alluvium
andesitic lahar deposit anticline aquiclude
aquifer aquitard artifact
ash (volcanic) ash flow - NP backswamp deposit
basal till - NP bauxite beach sands
bed bedded bedding plane
bedrock block lava block field
block glide deposit block stream blue rock (volcanic)
boulder field - NR bowl breccia
buried soil caliche caprock
chert chimney cinders
clast clastic coastal marl
colluvium complex landslide deposit conglomerate
continuous permafrost coprogenous earth coprogenous material
country rock craton creep deposit
cross-bedding cross-lamination cross-stratification
cryptogamic crust cryoturbate cyclothem
dead-ice - NR debris debris avalanche deposit
debris fall deposit debris flow deposit debris slide deposit
debris spread deposit debris topple deposit deposit
desert pavement desert varnish - NP detritus (geology)
diamictite diamicton diatomaceous earth
diatomite dike dip
discontinuity discontinuous permafrost dropstone
dolomite (mineral) dolomite (rock) dolostone - NR
dome dredge spoils drift (glacial geology)
earthflow deposit eolian deposit epiclastic
erosional pavement erratic estuarine deposit
facies (stratigraphy) fanglomerate felsenmeer - NP
felsic rock fill fly ash
flow till fluviomarine deposit fold
formation (stratigraphy) freshwater marl glacial drift - NR
glacial outwash - NR glacial till - NR glaciofluvial deposits
glaciolacustrine deposits glaciomarine deposits glauconite pellets
graben granitoid greensands
ground soil grus gypsite
herbaceous peat horst human-transported material
ice-pushed ridge ice wedge ice wedge cast
igneous rock interbedded intrusive
lacustrine deposit lagoonal deposit lahar deposit
lamella lamina lamination - NR
lapilli lateral spread deposit lava
limestone limonite lithologic
lodgment till loess louderback
mafic rock marine deposit marl
mass movement deposit melt-out till metamorphic rock
metasediment microbiotic crust mine spoil, coal extraction
mine spoil, metal-ore extraction mine spoil or earthy fill moraine
moss peat muck mucky peat
mudstone mudflow deposit novaculite
nuée ardente outcrop outwash
overbank deposit overburden overthrust
paleosol pahoehoe lava parna
peat pedisediment permafrost
pillow lava pitted outwash plow pan
pluton plutonic porcellanite
puff pumice pyroclastic
pyroclastic flow pyroclastic surge regolith
relict soil residuum rhythmite
rockfall deposit rockfall avalanche deposit rock varnish
rotational debris slide deposit rotational earth slide deposit rotational rock slide deposit
rotational slide deposit rubble sand flow deposit
sand sheet sandstone saprolite
scoria scree sediment
sedimentary peat sedimentary rock shale
siltstone sill siltite
slide slip face slip surface
slope alluvium sloughed till - NR slump - NR
slump block slump till- NR soil fall deposit
solifluction deposit solifluction sheet spoil bank
spoil pile sporadic permafrost stagnant ice
stone line strandline subglacial flow till
subglacial melt-out till subglacial till supraglacial debris-flow sediment - NP
supraglacial flow till supraglacial melt-out till supraglacial till
syncline talus tephra
thaw-sensitive permafrost thaw-stable permafrost till (glacial)
tombolo topple deposit tor
translational debris slide deposit translational earth slide deposit translational rock slide deposit
translational slide deposit tuff valley fill
valley side alluvium varve ventifact
vitric volcanic block volcanic bomb
volcanic breccia volcaniclastic welded soil
welded tuff woody peat  


Exhibit 629-3—Genesis - Process Terms and Geologic Time Terms Contained in the Glossary

(NR - terms that are NOT RECOMMENDED; NP - terms that are NOT PREFERRED)

aeolian - NR  accretion  active layer
active slope - NR  aggradation  alluvial
angle of repose  avalanche  avulsion
backwearing  block glide  buried
bypassed  cat clay - NR  colluvial
competence  complex landslide  conformity
congelifraction - NP  congeliturbation - NR  constructional (geomorphology)
corrosion  creep  cryoplanation
cryoturbation  cut and fill  debris avalanche
debris flow (mudflow)  debris slide  deflation
degradation  deposition  destructional (geomorphology)
dip (structural geology)  discontinuity  distal
earthflow  Eocene  eolian
erosion  erosional (geomorphology)  exfoliation
exhumed  extramorainic - NP  extramorainal
extrusive  fall  flow
fluvial  frost bursting - NR  frost churning - NR
frost riving - NR  frost shattering  frost splitting - NR
frost stirring - NR  frost weathering - NR  frost wedging - NR
geomorphology  gelifraction - NR  gelivation - NR
glacial  glacial epoch  glacial marine sedimentation
glacial outburst flood  glaciation  Holocene
ice age - NR  ice-rafting  ice segregation
intramorainal  joint  knickpoint
landslide  lateral spread  lithification
mass movement  mass wasting - NP  metastable slope - NR
Miocene  mudflow  nivation
Oligocene  Paleocene  pedoturbation
periglacial  Pleistocene  Pliocene
postglacial - NP  proximal  Quaternary
recent  relict  rockfall
rockfall avalanche  rotational landslide  sand flow
scour  scour and fill  slide
slope wash  slump - NP  soil creep - NP
soil fall  solifluction  strike (structural geology)
storm surge stratified  stratigraphy
stream order  subaerial  subaqueous
subglacial  superglacial - NR supraglacial
Tertiary  topple  translation slide
 volcanic  weathering  welding


Exhibit 629-4—North American Glacial Episodes and General Geologic Time Scale 1, 2

(Schoeneberger, et al, 2012)

Era Geologic Period Geologic Epoch Sub-Division O Isotope Stage Years (BP)
CENOZOIC QUATERNARY Holocene   (1) 0 to 10-12 ka*
Late Pleistocene Late Wisconsin (2) 10-12 to 28 ka
Middle Wisconsin (3, 4) 28 to 71 ka
Early Wisconsin
(Late Sangamon)
(5a - 5d) 71 to 115 ka
Sangamon (5e) 115 to 128 ka
Pleistocene Late - Mid Pleistocene
(Illinoian)
(6 - 8) 128 to 300 ka
Middle Pleistocene Middle - Mid Pleistocene (9 - 15) 300 to 620 ka
Early - Mid Pleistocene (16 - 19) 620 to 770 ka
Early Pleistocene     770 ka to 2.6 Ma**
TERTIARY Neogene Pliocene 2.6 to 5.3 Ma
Miocene 5.3 to 23.0 Ma
Paleogene Oligocene 23.0 to 33.9 Ma
Eocene 33.9 to 55.8 Ma
Paleocene 55.8 to 65.5 Ma
MESOZOIC CRETACEOUS Late Cretaceous 65.5 to 99.6 Ma
Early Cretaceous 99.6 to 145.5 Ma
JURASSIC 145.5 to 201.6 Ma
TRIASSIC 201.6 to 251.0 Ma
PERMIAN 251.0 to 299.0 Ma
PALEOZOIC PENNSYLVANIAN 299.0 to 318.0 Ma
MISSISSIPPIAN 318.0 to 359.0 Ma
DEVONIAN 359.0 to 416.0 Ma
SILURIAN 416.0 to 444.0 Ma
ORDIVICIAN 444.0 to 488.0 Ma
CAMBRIAN 488.0 to ? 542.0 Ma
  PRECAMBRIAN > ? 542.0 Ma


*    ka = x 1,000;  **Ma = x 1,000,000
?   “approximately”
1    Modified from Morrison, 1991; Sibrava, et al., 1986; and Harland, et al., 1990.
2    Modified from Walker, J.D., and Geidman, J.W. 2009.
 

References

Harland, W.B., R.L. Armstrong, L.E. Craig, A.G. Smith, and D.G. Smith. 1990. A geologic time scale. Press Syndicate of University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. 1 sheet.

Morrison, R.B. (ed.). 1991. Quaternary nonglacial geology: conterminous United States. Geological Society of America, Decade of North American Geology, Geology of North America, Vol. K-2. 672 p.

Schoeneberger, P.J., Wysocki, D.A., Benham, E.C., and Soil Survey Staff. 2012. Field book for describing and sampling soils, version 3.0. Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE.

Sibrava, V., D.Q. Bowen, and D.Q. Richmond (eds.). 1986. Quaternary glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere: final report of the International Geological Correlation Programme, Project 24. Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 5, Pergamon Press, Oxford. 514 p.

Walker, J.D., and Geidman, J.W. 2009. Geologic time scale. Geologic Society America.
 

Exhibit 629-5—Till Terms

Genetic classification and relationships of till terms commonly used in soil survey. (Schoeneberger, et al., 2002; adapted from Goldthwaite and Matsch, 1988.)

Location

(Facies of tills grouped by position at deposition)
Till Types
Terrestrial Waterlaid
Proglacial Till

(at the front of, or in front of a glacier)
proglacial flow till waterlaid flow till
Supraglacial Till

(on top of, or within upper part of a glacier)
supraglacial flow till 1, 3
supraglacial melt-out till 1

(ablation till - NP) 1
(lowered till - NP) 2
(sublimation till - NP) 2
------------
Subglacial Till

(within the lower part of, or beneath a glacier)
lodgment till 1
subglacial melt-out till
subglacial flow till
(=“squeeze till” 2, 3)

(basal till - NP) 1
(deformation till - NP) 2
(gravity flow till - NP) 2
waterlaid melt-out till
waterlaid flow till
iceberg till (=“ice-rafted”)


1 Ablation till and basil till are generic terms that only describe “relative position” of deposition and have been widely replaced by more specific terms that convey both relative position and process. Ablation till (any comparatively permeable debris deposited within or above stagnant ice) is replaced by supraglacial melt-out till and supraglacial flow till. Basal till (any dense, nonsorted subglacial till) is replaced by lodgment till, subglacial melt-out till, and subglacial flow till.

2 Additional (proposed) till terms that have not gained wide acceptance, and are therefore considered to be Not Preferred, and should not be used (shown for completeness).

3 Also called gravity flow till (Not Preferred).

References

Goldthwaite, R.P. and Matsch, C.L. (eds.). 1988. Genetic classification of glacigenic deposits: final report of the commission on genesis and lithology of glacial quaternary deposits of the International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA). A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. 294 p.

Jackson, J.A. (ed.). 1997. Glossary of geology, 4th Ed. American Geological Institute, Alexandria, VA. 769 p.

Schoeneberger, P.J., Wysocki, D.A., Benham, E.C., and Soil Survey Staff. 2012. Field book for describing and sampling soils, ver. 3.0. Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE.
 

Exhibit 629-6—Pyroclastic Terms

Pyroclastic Terms:  Size and compositional relationships of pyroclastic terms commonly used in soil survey. (Schoeneberger, et al., 2012; adapted from Fisher, 1989.)

Pyroclasts and Pyroclastic Deposits (Unconsolidated)

Size scale
<0.062 mm1 <2 mm <64 mm1 >64 mm1
tephra
(all pyroclastic deposits)
ash cinders2
(specific gravity > 1.0 & < 2.0)
bombs2
(fluid-shaped fragments)
fine ash coarse ash
 

 

 

 

lapilli2
(specific gravity > 2.0)
blocks2
(angular-shaped fragments)
scoria2
(slightly to moderately vesicular fragments; specific gravity > 2.0)
  pumiceous ash3 pumice2
(highly vesicular fragments; specific gravity < 1.0)

Associated Lithified (Consolidated) Rock Types

fine tuff1 coarse tuff1 lapillistone1
(specific gravity > 2.0)
pyroclastic breccia
welded tuff agglomerate
(rounded, volcanic fragments)
ignimbrite
(ash-dominated flows and nuée ardente)
volcanic breccia
(angular, volcanic fragments)

1 These size breaks are taken from geological literature (Fisher, 1989) and based on the modified Wentworth scale. The 0.062 mm break is very close to the USDA’s 0.05 mm break between coarse silt and very fine sand (soil Survey Division Staff, 1993). The 64 mm “geologic break” is relatively close to the USDA’s 75 mm break between coarse gravel and cobbles. [See the chart “Comparison of Particle Size Classes in Different Systems” in the “Profile/Pedon Description Section” under “Soil Texture” in the Field Book for Describing and Sampling Soils (Schoenberger, et al., 2012).]

2 A minimum size limit of 2 mm is required for volcanic fragments (i.e., rock and pararock) in Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999), but is not required in geologic usage (Fisher, 1989). Soil Taxonomy also defines the term “pumicelike fragments” for vesicular pyroclastic materials other than pumice that have an apparent specific gravity (including vesicles) of less than 1.0 g/cm3.

3 The general descriptor for pumiceous pyroclasts smaller than 2 mm. Geologic usage is based solely upon composition and does not include any size restrictions.

References

Fisher, R.V. 1989. Pyroclastic sediments and rocks. AGI Data Sheet 25.2. In: Dutro, J.T., R.V. Dietrich, and R.M. Foose. 1989. AGI data sheets for geology in the field, laboratory, and office, 3rd edition. American Geological Institute, Washington, D.C.

Jackson, J.A. (ed.). 1997. Glossary of geology, 4th Ed. American Geological Institute, Alexandria, VA. 769 p.

Schoeneberger, P.J., Wysocki, D.A., Benham, E.C., and Soil Survey Staff. 2012. Field book for describing and sampling soils, ver. 3.0. Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE.

Soil Survey Division Staff. 1993. Soil survey manual. Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook No. 18.

Soil Survey Staff. 1999. Soil taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. 2nd edition. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook 436.