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Plant Species for Soil & Wildlife Conservation Purposes Associated to Saline Coa

Plant Species for Soil & Wildlife Conservation Purposes Associated to Saline Coastal Tidal Flats

Pneumatophores (specialized roots) in black mangrove, Avicennia germinans. Sporobolus pyramidatus, Madagascar dropseed, salt grass.
Pneumatophores (specialized roots) in black mangrove, Avicennia germinans. Sporobolus pyramidatus, Madagascar dropseed, salt grass.

Saline coastal tidal flats rely on the borders of saline-water bodies whose water level fluctuates, and their salinity range is influenced by several factors such as: frequency of inundation, rainfall, and vegetation among others. Tidal flats as well as mangrove swamps form an important interface between terrestrial and marine habitats. Saline tidal flat thriving plants can provide protection against soil erosion, shelter, or fodder to certain wildlife species. These plants possess physiological and/or morphological adaptations such as: salt secretory glands to excrete salts as in the case of the genus Chloris and Spartina, large pores or air spaces in roots and stems to transfer oxygen from the aerial parts to the roots, waxes, and specialized roots as the pneumatophores present in the black mangrove.

These plant species can be used in reforestation and enhancement of these fragile ecosystems.

Forbs:
Technical name Common names (English/Spanish)
Bacopa monnieri Coastal water-hyssop or yerba de culebra
Batis maritima Turtleweed, saltwort or barilla
Heliotropium curassavicum Salt heliotrope or cotorrera de playa
Sesuvium maritimum Slender seapurslane or verdologa de mar
Sesuvium portulacastrum Shoreline seapurslane or verdolaga rosada
Grasses:
Technical name Common names
Paspalum vaginatum Seashore paspalum or corredora
Spartina patens Spartina or yerba de sal
Sporobolus pyramidatus Madagascar dropseed/salt grass or yerba de sal
Sporobolus virginicus Seashore rush grass or matojo de playa
Shrubs/Trees:
Technical name Common names
Avicenia germinans Black mangrove or mangle negro
Bontia daphnoides White alling or manzanilla, mangle bobo
Conocarpus erectus Button mangrove or mangle botón
Ernodea littoralis Cough bush
Erithalis fruticosa Jayabico
Ginoria rohrii Bastard gregre or rosa de ciénaga
Hippomane mancinella Manchineel or manzanillo
Laguncularia racemosa White mangrove or mangle blanco
Rhizophora mangle Red mangrove or mangle rojo
Stahlia monosperma Cobana negra
Vines
Technical name Common names
Canavalia maritima Seaside bean or habichuela de playa
Rhabdadenia biflora Mangrove vine or enredadera de mangle

Sesuvium portulacastrum (seashore paspalum) Batis maritima (turtleweed, saltwort)

Sesuvium portulacastrum (seashore paspalum)

Batis maritima (turtleweed, saltwort)

References
  1. Commonwealth Department of Natural and Environmental Resources (PR) et. al. 2001. Guide to Identify Wetlands Plants in the Caribbean Area: Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. Univ. of Puerto Rico Press. San Juan, PR.
  2. Más, E. & García-Molinari, O. 2006. Guía Ilustrada de Yerbas Comunes en Puerto Rico. Univ. de Puerto Rico Mayagüez & USDA Servicio de Conservación de Recursos Naturales, Área del Caribe.
  3. Proctor G. R. 1994. Vieques Mangrove Forest Manual. PR Dept of Natural and Environmental Resources.
  4. Silvestri, S. & Marani, M. 2004. Salt-marsh Vegetation and Morphology: Basic Physiology, Modeling and Remote Sensing Observations. IN: Ecogeomorphology of Tidal Marshes. Eds.: S. Fagherazi, L. Blum, & M. Marani. American Geophysical Union. Coastal and Estuarine Monograph Series.

For more information, contact Edwin Más at 787-766-5206.