Soil is the unconsolidated mineral and organic material on the immediate surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
- Resource Conservation Glossary, Third Edition, 1982
Downer soils are used mostly as woodland. The natural vegetation consists of mixed oaks, hickory, and scattered pines. Some areas are cultivated for high-value vegetable and fruit crops that are usually irrigated. Downer soils occur on 291,319 acres in New Jersey. These soils are dominantly in the 11 counties of southern New Jersey.
The Downer series was established in Gloucester County, New Jersey, in 1960.