Residuum – weathered bedrock; found predominately in the Highlands and Piedmont provinces; soil textures dependent on type of rock from which the soil is weathered
Glacial deposits – till and outwash; found in the Valley and Ridge, Highlands, and Piedmont provinces; soil textures dominated by high sand and gravel contents
Lacustrine deposits – glacial lake-bottom sediments; found in all provinces in New Jersey; soil textures have high silt and clay contents
Fluvial deposits – deposited by rivers and streams; found in all provinces in New Jersey; soil textures have high sand and silt contents
Organic deposits – decomposed herbaceous and woody vegetation; found in all New Jersey provinces; soil textures are peat and muck
Aeolian deposits – transported by wind; are not typically deep deposits, but may exist as a thin deposit overlying another type of parent material; found in the Valley and Ridge and Coastal Plain provinces; soil textures dominated by medium and fine sands
Colluvium – transported downslope by gravity; found predominately in the Piedmont province, but some deposits exist in the till areas of the Highlands; soil textures dependent on particle-size of colluviated parent material
Estuarine deposits – deposited by rivers and streams that adjoin seas or oceans, and are subject to daily flooding by tides; found along the coastline of New Jersey; typically have a high organic matter content, with mineral soil textures dominated by silt and clay
Marine deposits – deposited by sedimentation of material from oceans and seas; found in the Coastal Plain province; soil textures dominated by sand, but can also have textures with considerable silt and clay; also a presence of glauconite (greensand) in some of these deposits
A (very) Short Lesson in Geology
There are three basic rock types:
The relationships of these rock types are described in a concept called the "Rock Cycle".
Adapted from: Plummer, Charles C., and David McGeary 1988. Physical Geology, Fourth Edition, p. 41, Figure 2.26. Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa.
Reference: Plummer, Charles C., and David McGeary 1988. Physical Geology, Fourth Edition. Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa.