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Footnotes - A National Perspective of the Potential For Pesticide Leaching

  1. Aspelin, Arnold L. 1997. Pesticides Industry Sales and Usage: 1994 and 1995 Market Estimates. Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 35 pages.
  2. Pimentel, David, et. al.. November 1992. Environmental and Economic Costs of Pesticide Use. BioScience 42(10):750-760.
  3. Aspelin, Arnold L. 1997. Pesticides Industry Sales and Usage: 1994 and 1995 Market Estimates. Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 35 pages.
  4. Association of State and Interstate Water Pollution control Administrators. America's Clean Water: The States' Nonpoint Source Assessment 1985. Washington, DC 1985. 24p.
  5. US Environmental Protection Agency, National Pesticide Survey Project Summary, Fall 1990,10 pp.
  6. Hamilton, Pixie A. and Robert J. Shedlock. 1992. Are Fertilizers and Pesticides in the Ground Water?: A Case Study of the Delmarva Peninsula. U S Geological survey Circular 1080. US Government Printing Office.
  7. Monsanto Agricultural Company, The National Alachlor Well Water Survey (NAWWS): Data Summary, Monsanto Technical Bulletin, July 1990.
  8. Kolpin, Dana W., Michael R. Burkart, and E. Michael Thurman. 1994. Herbicides and Nitrate in Near-Surface Aquifers in the Midcontinental United States, 1991. USGS Water Supply Paper 2413, US Government Printing Office. 34 pages.
  9. Barbash, Jack E., Gail P. Thelin, Dana W. Kolpin, and Robert J. Gilliom. 1999. Distribution of Major Herbicides in Ground Water of the United States. USGS Water Resources Investigations Report 98-4245. US Government Printing Office, 57 pages.
  10. Atrazine in Surface Waters: A report of the Atrazine Task Group to the Working Group on Water Quality. April 1992. USDA. 13 pages.
  11. Goolsby, D.A., and Battaglin, W.A. 1993. Occurrence, distribution, and transport of agricultural chemicals in surface waters of the Midwestern United States, in Goolsby, D.A., and others, Eds, Selected papers on agricultural chemicals in water resources of the Mid-continental United States. U.S. Geological Survey Pen-file Report 93-418, p. 1-24.
  12. Goolsby, Donald A., William A. Battaglin, and E. Michael Thurman. 1993. Occurrence and Transport of Agricultural Chemicals in the Mississippi River Basin, July through August 1993. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1120-C. U. S. Government Printing Office. 22 pages.
  13. Larson, Steven J., Robert J. Gilliom, and Paul D. Capel. 1999. Pesticides in Streams of the United States--Initial Results from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. US Geological Survey, Water Resources Investigations Report 98-4222, US Government Printing Office, 92 pages.
  14. Baker, David B. and R. Peter Richards. forthcoming, 1995. Herbicides in Ohio's Drinking Water: Risk Analysis, Reduction, and Communication. Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Pesticides: New Directions in Pesticide Research, Development, and Policy, Viriginia Water Resources Center, VPISU, Blacksburg, VA. 23 pages.
  15. US Geological Survey, National Water Quality Assessment Program. 1995. Pesticides in the Atmosphere. US Department of Interior. 4 pages.
  16. U.S. Geological Survey, 1999, The Quality of Our Nation's Waters--Nutrients and Pesticides: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1225, 82 pages.
  17. Preliminary results have previously been reported in: Kellogg, R. L., R. Nehring, and A. Grube. "Spatial and Temporal Trends in the Potential for Agrichemicals to Leach." Poster presented at the 50th annual meeting of the Soil and Water Conservation Society, Des Moines IA, 6-9 August 1995; Kellogg, R.L., and Don W. Goss. "Development of Environmental Indicators for Use in Macroeconomic Models." Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 29, 1 (July 1997):77-86;Kellogg, R.L., R. Nehring, A. Grube, S. Plotkin, D.W. Goss, S. Wallace. "Trends in the Potential for Environmental Risk from Pesticide Loss from Farm Fields." Poster presented at a Soil and Water Conservation Society Conference on "The State of North America's Private Land," January 19-21, 1999, Chicago, Illinois.
  18. Baker, James, Ed Adcock, and Gerald Miller. September 1992. Understanding and reducing pesticide losses. Cooperative Extension Service, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.
  19. Knisel, W. G. (Ed). 1993. GLEAMS: Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management. Systems Version 2.10 Biological & Agricultural Engineering Department. Publication No. 5. University of Georgia-Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton. 260 pp.
  20. Wauchope, R.D., T.M. Butler, A.G. Hornsby, P.W.M. Augustijn-Beckers, and J.P. Burt 1992. The SCS/ARS/CES pesticide properties database for environmental decision making. Environmental Contaminant Toxicology Reviews. 123:1-164.
  21. Willis, G.H., and L.L. McDowell. 1987. Pesticide persistence of foliage. Environmental Contaminant Toxicology Reviews, 100:23-73
  22. Insect Control Guide Volume 8, 1995, Meister Publishing Company, Willoughby, OH, 422pp
  23. Weed Control Manual, Volume 30, 1996, Meister Publishing Company, Willoughby, OH, 538pp
  24. To measure actual risk, the edge-of-field and bottom-of-rootzone concentration estimates would have to be adjusted using hydrology models to represent in-stream concentrations (or in the case of drinking water taken from ground water sources, aquifer concentrations). For human risk, additional adjustments would be needed to account for sources of drinking water and population. These adjustments are beyond the scope of this study.
  25. Winter, Thomas C., Judson W. Harvey, O. Lehn Franke, and William M. Alley. 1998. Ground Water and Surface Water: A Single Resource. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1139. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado, 79 pages.
  26. Kellogg, R.L., G.W. TeSelle, and J.J. Goebel. "Highlights from the 1992 National Resources Inventory." J. Soil and Water Conservation 49 (1994):521-27.
  27. The Doane Pesticide Profile Study: Users Manual. Doane Marketing Research, Inc. Unpublished Manuscript.
  28. The Doane Herbicide Marketing Study: Manual for Users. Doane Agricultural Service, Inc. Unpublished Manuscript.
  29. Barnthouse, L.W., G.W. Suter and A.E. Rosen. 1990. Risk of Toxic Contaminants to Exploited Fish Populations: Influence of Life History, Data Uncertainty and Exploitation Intensity. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 9:297-311.
  30. Plotkin, S., J.K. Bagdon, E.S. Hesketh and M.H. Hugo. Unpublished Manuscript. Pesticide Short-term and Long-term Toxicity Derivation and Data: Humans, Fish, Crustaceans and Small Aquatic Plants. USDA NRCS and University of Massachusetts Extension.

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