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Nutrient Use in Cropland Agriculture
(Commercial Fertilizer and Manure):

Nitrogen and Phosphorus - Working Paper No. 14

Charles H. Lander, USDA-NRCS
Biological Conservation Sciences Division
Washington, D.C.

David Moffitt, USDA-NRCS
South Central Regional Office
Fort Worth, Texas

February 1996

Contents

Outline
Prefatory note
Introduction
Trends
Status
References
Appendix I--Computational Factors
Appendix II--State and Crop Tables

Outline

  1. Introduction
  2. Trends
    1. Cropland Acres Planted, Harvested, Fertilized
      Cropland 1982-1987
      Cropland 1987-1992
    2. Conservation Reserve Program Acreage, 1987 and 1992
    3. Acreage Conservation Reserve, 1982-1992
    4. Trends in Grazing Land Fertilized, 1982-1992
    5. Commercial Fertilizer Use
      Nitrogen 1982-1987
      Nitrogen 1987-1992
      Phosphate 1982-1987
      Phosphate 1987-1992
    6. Commercial Nitrogen and Phosphate Fertilizer Application Rates for Selected Crops, 1982-1992
      Corn
      Wheat
      Soybeans
      Cotton
      Rice
      Other Crops
    7. Animal Production, 1982 and 1992
      Cattle and Calves
      Dairy Cows and Replacements
      Hogs and Pigs
      Chickens (Layers)
      Chickens (Broilers)
      Turkeys
    8. Summary
  3. Status
    1. Commercial Nitrogen and Phosphate Fertilizer Consumption, 1992
    2. Commercial Nitrogen and Phosphate Fertilizer Utilization
      (Total; Selected Crops; Other Uses ( 1992)
    3. Animal Populations; Manure, Nitrogen, Phosphorus Production, 1992
      Estimating Organic Nitrogen and Phosphorus
      1. Category 1 Losses
      2. Category 2 Losses
      Cattle and Calves
      Dairy Cows and Replacements
      Chickens (Layers)
      Chickens (Broilers)
      Hogs and Pigs (Breeders and Market)
      Turkeys
      Summary
    4. Commercial Nitrogen and Phosphate Fertilizer Utilization
      for Thirty-six Selected Crops in Thirty-four Selected States, 1992
      Asparagus Other Lettuce
      Lima Beans, Fresh Cantaloupe
      Snap Beans, Fresh Honeydew Melons
      Snap Beans, Processed Watermelons
      Broccoli Dry Onions
      Cabbage, Fresh Green Peas, Processed
      Cabbage, Processed Bell Peppers
      Carrots Irish Potatoes
      Cauliflower Rice
      Celery Soybeans
      Field Corn Spinach, Fresh
      Sweet Corn, Fresh Spinach, Processed
      Sweet Corn, Processed Strawberries
      Upland Cotton Tomatoes, Fresh
      Cucumbers, Fresh Tomatoes, Processed
      Cucumbers, Processed Durum Wheat
      Eggplant Spring Wheat
      Head Lettuce Winter Wheat
      Summary
  4. References
  5. Appendix I - Computational Factors
  6. Appendix II - State and Crop Tables

Prefatory Note

In the original plan of this report, a third appendix was to be included which would present the results of county-level case studies made in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; Washington County, Iowa; Sampson County, North Carolina; and Cuming County, Nebraska. These case studies will discuss in detail the balance between the organic sources of nitrogen and phosphorus in each county and the total nutrient needs of the crops grown in the same area. They are now expected to appear as a separate working paper in this series.

Introduction

This report documents information about crop production, the sale and use of commercial fertilizers, growth and shifts in animal production, trends in the use of nitrogen and phosphorus on selected crops, and the status in 1992 of the use of nitrogen and phosphorus on thirty-six crops for which detailed information is collected by USDA. According to the degree to which information was available, comparisons have been made for the period 1982 to 1992 either on an annual basis, or for each of the 5-year periods 1982(1987 and 1987(1992, or showing net differences over the 10 years. The information presented here has been drawn from a variety of sources within and outside USDA. Those sources include:

  • Census of Agriculture, 1987 and 1992, published every 5 years by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census
  • 1992 Agricultural Chemical Usage Summary for Vegetables and Field Crops, published by USDA-National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS)
  • 1992 & 1993 Crop Production Summaries, published annually by USDA-NASS
  • Agricultural Statistics--1985, published by USDA-NASS
  • 1993 Animal Production Summaries, published by USDA-NASS
  • Commercial Fertilizers--1993, published by Tennessee Valley Authority, National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center
  • Fertilizer Use and Price Statistics, 1960-91, published annually by USDA-Economic Research Service (ERS)
  • Agricultural Resources--Inputs, Situation and Outlook Report, February 1993, published by USDA-ERS
  • Donald L. Van Dyne and Conrad B. Gilbertson, Estimating U.S. Livestock and Poultry and Nutrient Production, USDA Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, ESCS 1 2, March 1978

No attempt has been made to define the process or details by which referenced data was collected or summarized by the collecting agencies. Such information is available from the following sources:

Tennessee Valley Authority
National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center
P.O. Box 1010
Muscle Shoals, Alabama 35660

United States Department of Agriculture
Economic Research Service
Natural Resources and Environment Division, Room 524
1301 New York Avenue, NW
Washington, D.C. 20005-4788

United States Department of Agriculture
National Agricultural Statistics Service
14th & Independence Avenue, Room 5906
Washington, D.C. 20250

United States Department of Commerce
Bureau of the Census
Washington, D.C. 20233

Data are presented in two ways in this report. Data summarized nationally are presented in the body of the report. State-specific data are presented separately in Appendix II. The reader is cautioned that the term nutrients used here should be construed as meaning nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P2O5), the two nutrients most commonly linked to identified water quality problems. The term agricultural production systems should be interpreted to mean nitrogen and phosphate use on the following identified crops. These are the crops on which USDA gathered detailed information about nutrient utilization in 1992.

Asparagus Cucumbers (Fresh) Potatoes (Irish)
Barley Cucumbers (Processing) Potatoes (Sweet)
Beans (Lima, fresh) Eggplant Rice
Beans (Snap, fresh) Flaxseed Rye
Beans (Snap, processing) Lentils Safflower
Beans (Dry) Lettuce (Head) Sorghum (Grain)
Broccoli Lettuce (Other) Soybeans
Cabbage (Fresh) Melons (Cantaloupe) Spinach (Processing)
Cabbage (Processing) Melons (Honeydew) Spinach (Fresh)
Canola Melons (Watermelons) Strawberries
Carrots Mustard Sugar beets
Cauliflower Oats Sugar cane
Celery Onions (Dry) Sunflower
Corn (Grain, all purposes) Peanuts Tomatoes (Fresh)
Corn (Sweet, fresh) Peas (Austrian) Tomatoes (Processing)
Corn (Sweet, processing) Peas (Dry) Wheat (Durum)
Corn (Silage) Peas (Green, processing) Wheat (Other, spring)
Cotton (Upland) Peppers (Bell) Wheat (Winter)

To the degree to which information is either available or can be extrapolated, this report documents the amount of commercial nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer used on these crops in relation to the total amount sold as documented by TVA. With the exception of discussion of acres of grazing land fertilized (range and pastureland), discussion is limited to the use of fertilizer on cropland, as defined in the Census of Agriculture, or to the use of nutrients (N and P2O5) on cropland on the previously mentioned crops for which detailed nutrient use information is available. The abbreviation N/A is used throughout this document to indicate situations where data was not available.

Trends

Trends in Cropland Acres Planted, Harvested, and Fertilized: 1982-1992

Nutrients are an integral input into almost all agricultural production systems. The analysis of the trends and current importance of the use of nutrients in agricultural production was initiated by reviewing trends in the number of cropland acres planted, harvested, and fertilized over the period 1982-1992. Planted acres were estimated by adding harvested cropland acres and cropland acres on which all crops failed. Table 1 cites specific data for the years 1982, 1987, and 1992.

Table 1. Cropland acreage planted, harvested, and fertilized
  Cropland acres
  Planted Harvested Fertilized
  -----------------(1,000 acres)-----------------
1982 331,192.2 326,306.5 210,340.2
1987 284,862.1 281,223.9 195,134.8
1992 302,086.7 295,914.3 209,456.9
Source of data: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1990, 1994
CROPLAND, 1982-1987

During the period from 1982 to 1987, reductions occurred in all three categories. The number of planted acres decreased by 46.3 million, the number of harvested acres decreased by 45.1 million, and the number of fertilized acres decreased by 15.2 million. Decreases in the number of planted and harvested acres occurred in all states except Alaska. Decreases in the number of cropland acres fertilized occurred in 41 states. The remaining nine states reported increases in the number of cropland acres fertilized during this period.

CROPLAND, 1987-1992

During the period from 1987 to 1992, increases occurred in all three categories. Planted acres increased by about 17.2 million, the number of acres harvested increased by about 14.9 million, and the number of acres fertilized increased by about 14.4 million. The number of acres planted in 1992 was about 29.1 million fewer than were planted in 1982. The number of acres harvested in 1982, 1987, and 1992 as a function of acres planted remained relatively constant at about 98 to 99 percent of acres planted. The number of fertilized acres showed some increase as a function of acres planted, increasing from 63.5 percent of acres planted in 1982 to 68.5 percent in 1987 and to 69.4 percent in 1992. State-specific data for planted, harvested, and fertilized acres are presented in appendix tables 1 through 3 on pages 36-41.

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) was started in 1986. The goal of the program was to remove from production land with inherent properties that made it susceptible to serious erosion problems. Enrollment in the CRP has risen to 36.4 million acres in 1993 since the first signup was held in 1986. Through the fifth signup, held in July 1987, about 13.7 million acres were under CRP contract. An additional 22.7 million acres were enrolled in CRP through the twelfth signup, held in 1993. Figure 1 shows CRP enrollment from 1986 through 1992. State-specific CRP data are shown in appendix table 4 on page 42.

Acreage Conservation Reserve (ACR)

Although it has received less public notice than the CRP, the Acreage Conservation Reserve (ACR) has been responsible for the annual idling of cropland that would otherwise be planted. Figure 1 shows ACR land idled from 1983 through 1992. Land idled annually in the ACR varied from a low of 11.1 million acres in 1982 to a high of 60.5 million acres in 1987; the spike in 1983 was due to the Payment-In-Kind program (see below). No state-specific data are presented for ACR acreage.

The goal of ACR is to reduce the production of program crops, such as wheat, feed grains, upland cotton and Egyptian long-staple cotton, and rice, to produce a better stocks to use ratio in the marketplace. Producers enrolling in the acreage reduction program were required to reduce the planting of an enrolled program crop by a specified percentage of the crop acreage base for that crop, if the Secretary of Agriculture determined that such reduction was necessary to improve the stocks to use ratio. There were 26.7 million acres designated as ACR in 1994.

Bar chart showing acres enrolled in Acreage Conservation Reserve and Conservation Reserve Program from 1982-1992, by year
Figure 1 Acres enrolled in Acreage Conservation Reserve and Conservation Reserve Program, 1982-1992

Trends in Grazing Land Fertilized, 1982-1992

During the period from 1982 to 1987 the number of acres of grazing land fertilized increased by about 1.4 million acres, slightly under 10 percent. From 1987 to 1992 acres fertilized increased by 1.2 million acres, about 7.5 percent. Specific data are cited for the years 1982, 1987, and 1992. Individual state data are given in appendix table 5 on page 44.

Table 2 Grazing land fertilized
  1982 1987 1992
Acreage (1,000 acres) 14,547.2 15,949.0 17,165.9
Source of data: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1990, 1994
Trends in Commercial Nitrogen and Phosphate Fertilizer Use

Commercial synthetic fertilizers account for the majority of nutrients used in most agricultural production systems, as well as in most other plant production systems. Figure 2 documents trends in the total consumption of commercial nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers for the period 1982 through 1992.

NITROGEN, 1982-1987

During this period the consumption of commercial nitrogen fertilizers decreased from about 10.98 to about 10.21 million nutrient tons. The sharp one-year drop in nitrogen fertilizer consumption that occurred in 1983 can be attributed to the one-year USDA Payment-In-Kind (PIK) program implemented through the ASCS to reduce the quantities of various commodities being stored by USDA. The PIK program affected the production of corn, sorghum, oats, wheat, barley, rice, and upland cotton in 1983, when an estimated 75.7 million acres were diverted from the production of these crops as a result of the program. This compares to about 10.7 million diverted acres in 1982 and 25.9 million diverted acres in 1984.

The first five CRP signups also likely impacted the consumption of commercial nitrogen fertilizers during this period. In July 1986 the first signup resulted in an enrollment of 753,632 acres. By the end of 1987, about 15.7 million acres had been enrolled in CRP. During this period ACR curtailed the consumption of commercial nitrogen fertilizer more than CRP, particularly in 1986 and 1987. In 1986 about 46.1 million acres were idled through ACR, and in 1987 about 60.5 million acres were idled.

NITROGEN, 1987-1992

An upward trend in the consumption of commercial nitrogen fertilizer is evident from 1987 through 1992. During this period consumption increased from 10.2 million to 11.4 million nutrient tons, an increase of something less than 12 percent. During this period the number of planted acres increased by 2.1 percent from 1987, to 302 million acres. At the same time, CRP enrollment increased to 35.4 million acres. State-specific data are presented in appendix table 6 on page 46.

Line chart showing nitrogen and phosphate consumption from 1982-1992, by year
Figure 2. Nitrogen and phosphate consumption, all applications
Source of data: Vroomen and Taylor, 1992; USDA-NASS, March 1993

PHOSPHATE, 1982-1987

The trend for commercial phosphate fertilizer consumption during this period closely parallels the trend for nitrogen. An overall decrease of 0.8 million nutrient tons occurred between 1982 and 1987. The same drop is evident for phosphate in 1983 that occurred for nitrogen fertilizer consumption. The same factors that influenced the consumption of nitrogen are likely involved in the consumption of phosphate fertilizers.

PHOSPHATE, 1987-1992

Commercial phosphate fertilizer consumption increased from 4.0 million nutrient tons to 4.2 million nutrient tons. As is depicted in figure 2, the annual consumption of phosphate fertilizers during this period has been relatively constant. State-specific data comparing the consumption of commercial phosphate fertilizers in 1982 and 1992 are presented in appendix table 7 on page 48.

Trends in Commercial Nitrogen and Phosphate Application Rates, 1982-1992 (Selected Crops)

Data to document long-term trends in the use of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers were available for corn, cotton, soybeans, and wheat. Annual application rates per acre are shown for the years 1982 through 1992 for these crops. For rice, the same information was available and is shown only for the years 1988 through 1992.

CORN

Figure 3 shows trends in the use of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on corn for the period 1982-1992. It shows an overall decline in the per acre application of commercial nitrogen fertilizer on corn, from 135 pounds per acre in 1982 to 127 pounds per acre in 1992. The range in application rates for 1992 among the states for which detailed data are collected was from a low of 78 pounds per acre in South Dakota to a high of 160 pounds per acre in Texas. The reader is cautioned that this range reflects a difference in yield of forty-one bushels per acre between these two states. Figure 3 shows, with the exception of minor spikes in 1985 and 1988, a continuous decline in the per acre application of phosphate fertilizer on corn, which amounted to a decrease of 8 pounds per acre during the period.

Line chart showing nitrogen and phosphate use on corn from 1982-1992, by year
Figure 3. Nitrogen and phosphate used on corn, rate per fertilized acre
Source of data: Vroomen and Taylor, 1992; USDA-NASS, March 1993

WHEAT

Figure 4 shows trends in the use of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on wheat for the period 1982-1992. Figure 4 is inclusive of all wheat, including winter, durum, and other spring wheats. It shows an overall increase of 4 pounds of nitrogen per acre during the period. Per acre nitrogen fertilization rates vary among the three major wheat varieties. Data for nitrogen application rates of selected states in 1992 are given below in table 3. Data for 1992 show a range of nitrogen fertilizer application rates from a low of 43 pounds per acre in South Dakota to a high of 86 pounds per acre in Minnesota for spring wheat, and from a low of 35 pounds per acre in Montana to a high of 101 pounds per acre in Arkansas. As with corn, these differences reflect differences in both climate and yield.

Figure 4 also shows an overall decrease of 3 pounds per acre in phosphate fertilizer application rates on all wheat during the 1982-1992 period. As with nitrogen, phosphate application rates vary among the three wheat varieties. Data for phosphate application rates of selected states in 1992 are given in table 3.

Data for 1992 show ranges in phosphate fertilizer application rates from a low of 24 pounds per acre in South Dakota and Montana to a high of 34 pounds per acre in Minnesota for spring wheat, and for winter wheat, from a low of 16 pounds per acre in Colorado to a high of 63 pounds per acre in Ohio.

Line chart showing nitrogen and phosphate use on wheat from 1982-1992, by year
Figure 4. Nitrogen and phosphate used on wheat, rate per fertilized acre
Source of data: Vroomen and Taylor, 1992; USDA-NASS, March 1993

Table 3 Nitrogen and phosphate use on wheat, 1992
  Per acre application rate (lbs)
Variety Nitrogen Phosphate
Durum Wheat 51 26
Spring Wheat 57 29
Winter Wheat 66 8
SOYBEANS

Figure 5 shows trends in the use of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on soybeans for the 1982-1992 period. It shows an increase of 14 pounds per acre in the use of nitrogen fertilizer on soybeans for the 1982-1992 period. From 1982 to 1991 the extent of the soybean acreage receiving nitrogen fertilizer varied between 15 and 20 percent; it rose to 31 percent of the soybean acreage in 1992. Data for soybeans in 1992 show a range in nitrogen fertilizer application rates from a low of 12 pounds per acre in Indiana to a high of 44 pounds per acre in Kentucky. The percentage of soybean acreage receiving nitrogen fertilizer ranged from 4 percent in Louisiana to 54 percent in North Carolina.

Figure 5 also shows an increase of 5 pounds per acre in the use of phosphate fertilizers on soybeans during the 1982-1992 period. Data for 1992 show a range in the rates of phosphate fertilizer application from a low of 31 pounds per acre in Nebraska to a high of 74 pounds per acre in Kentucky.

Line chart showing nitrogen and phosphate use on soybeans from 1982-1992, by year
Figure 5. Nitrogen and phosphate used on soybeans, rate per fertilized acre
Source of data: Vroomen and Taylor, 1992; USDA-NASS, March 1993

COTTON

Figure 6 shows trends in the use of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on cotton for the 1982-1992 period. From 1982 to 1988 nitrogen fertilization rates varied from an average of 77 pounds per acre to 82 pounds per acre. A sharp increase occurred after 1988, peaking at an average of 91 pounds per acre in 1991. Data for 1992 show a range in nitrogen fertilizer application rates from 66 pounds per acre in Texas to 131 pounds per acre in California.

In general, per acre application rates of phosphate fertilizers on cotton decreased from 1982 to 1988 and increased from 1988 to 1992. The net change from 1982 to 1992 was an increase of 2 pounds per acre. Data for 1992 show a range in phosphate fertilizer application rates from 44 pounds per acre in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas to 86 pounds per acre in California.

Line chart showing nitrogen and phosphate use on cotton from 1982-1992, by year
Figure 6. Nitrogen and phosphate used on cotton, rate per fertilized acre (average of selected states)
Source of data: Vroomen and Taylor, 1992; USDA-NASS, March 1993

RICE

Table 4 shows trends in the use of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on rice for the 1988-1992 period, during which the per acre application rate of nitrogen fertilizer on rice rose to 134 pounds. Phosphate fertilizer application rates remained relatively constant, varying by 3 pounds per acre over the period.

Table 4 Nitrogen and phosphate used on rice (selected states)
  Application rate (lbs per acre)
Year Nitrogen Phosphate
1988 127 47
1989 125 45
1990 114 45
1991 127 46
1992 134 44
Source of data: USDA-ERS, 1993
OTHER CROPS

Detailed information on nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer utilization for the other crops considered in this RCA analysis is collected by USDA-NASS and published in its Agricultural Chemical Usage Summary. Information is collected and published for both field and vegetable crops. These publications were started in response to growing public awareness of and interest in the interaction between agricultural chemical use in agricultural production and water quality. The 1992 summary for field crops was the third such published by NASS, and the 1992 summary for vegetables was the second. The data published in these summaries do not yet represent a time span long enough to establish or demonstrate long-term trends. Data on nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer utilization for these crops for 1992 are reported in the status section of this report.

Trends in Animal Production, 1982-1992

Trends in animal production have followed the nation's move toward greater consumption of poultry and swine and reduced consumption of cattle and calves. Table 5 shows the national trends in animal production for cattle and calves, dairy cows and replacements, hogs and pigs, chickens (broilers), chickens (layers), and turkeys from 1982 through 1992. As the table indicates, the populations of beef cattle, dairy cattle, and chickens (layers) decreased during this period, while the populations of chickens (broilers), turkeys, and hogs and pigs increased.

Table 5 Animal population summaries, 1982-1992
Animal type 1982 population
(1,000)
1992 population
(1,000)
Percentage change
Beef 100,061 85,445 -14.6
Dairy 15,544 14,115 -9.2
Hogs and pigs 54,534 58,001 +6.4
Chickens (layers) 379,219 367,015 -3.2
Chickens (broilers) 3,906,335 6,388,990 +63.6
Turkeys 163,809 288,980 +76.4
CATTLE AND CALVES

Nationally, the production of cattle and calves decreased by about 14 percent during the period cited. The population of cattle and calves decreased in 48 of the 50 states. In those states, the reductive change ranged from -4.3 percent in Colorado to -43.3 percent in New Hampshire. Increases in beef cattle populations occurred in Kentucky and Rhode Island. State summaries for the 1982-1992 period are shown in appendix table 8 on page 50.

DAIRY COWS AND REPLACEMENTS

As with cattle and calves, the overall population of dairy cattle decreased nationally. In 1992 there were 9.2 percent fewer milk cows and replacement heifers than there were in 1982; decreases occurred in 41 states. The decreases ranged from -4.1 percent in Missouri to -35.2 percent in Mississippi. Dairy cattle populations increased in the other nine states. The reader is cautioned not to interpret the overall decrease in the population of dairy cattle as a decrease in milk production. Milk production was not analyzed within the RCA process. State summaries for the 1982-1992 period are shown in appendix table 9 on page 52.

HOGS AND PIGS

Nationally, the production of hogs and pigs increased about 6.4 percent during the 1982-1992 period. Of greater interest is the ongoing regional shift in production. Hog production decreased in 31 states. Decreases ranged from -3.2 percent to -98.9 percent. As hog production dropped in these states, it was increasing in the remaining 19 states; increases ranged from 3.4 percent to 109.3 percent. State summaries for the 1982-1992 period are shown in appendix table 10 on page 54. Of interest are the state statistics, shown in table 6, documenting some of the increases.

Table 6 Hog production (selected states)
State Change (percent) 1982-1992
Arkansas 65.3
California 56.3
Michigan 60.0
North Carolina 109.3
CHICKENS (LAYERS)

The population of chickens raised primarily for egg production remained relatively stable during the 1982-1992 period. In 1992, the population of all layers declined by 3.2% from 1982 population numbers. As with hogs and pigs, there is evidence of regional shifts in the production of layers. While this type of chicken production was decreasing by as much as 68.8 percent in Tennessee, it was increasing by 128.4 percent in Nebraska. State summaries for the 1982-1992 period are shown in appendix table 11 on page 56.

CHICKENS (BROILERS)

During the 1982-92 period, there was a significant increase in the production of broiler chickens. Increases of minor or major magnitude occurred in most of the states producing broilers in 1982. Broiler production in Arkansas increased by 53 percent during the 1982-1992 period. The 1992 population for all broilers raised in Arkansas was 1.02 billion birds. In those states for which production data was available, only Hawaii and Michigan reported decreases in the 10-year period. State summaries for the 1982(92 period are shown in appendix table 12 on page 58.

TURKEYS

Production of turkeys increased by 76 percent during the 1982-1992 period. Increases occurred in all but three states for which NASS collects data. These increases ranged from 3.4 percent in Massachusetts to 125.5 percent in North Carolina. In North Carolina, the population increased from 27,500,000 turkeys in 1982 to 62,000,000 in 1992. Other states with significant percentage increases, although small numerical increases, included Illinois, Oregon, and South Dakota. Turkey production decreased in Delaware and Maryland, Georgia, and New Hampshire. State summaries for 1982-1992 are shown in appendix table 13 on page 60.

SUMMARY

From an environmental perspective, animal production is important because of its potential to contribute to environmental degradation. Degradation may occur as a direct result of animal activity, such as uncontrolled grazing of riparian areas, or as a result of improper disposal of animal manures from feedlots and other confined operations. Safe storage and effective utilization of the manures and nutrients produced by animal operations offer a significant challenge to USDA, state environmental and conservation agencies, the animal industry, and producers.

As public concern and care for water quality and other aspects of the environment continue to grow, it will become increasingly important that animal production does not result in environmental degradation where that is preventable. Land application of animal waste has historically been the vehicle for disposing of such material. Historically, a given producer had adequate land to safely utilize animal waste. As the industry has moved toward confinement-type facilities with greater total production, which are often concentrated in geographical areas, this is no longer the case. In some situations, the production facility may own little, if any, land for agricultural production. Even in those situations where the production facility does own such land, the land may not be located close enough to the production site to make land disposition economical. Finally, in some locations, the volume of nutrients produced as a function of animal production exceeds the crop requirements. In these areas, other disposition techniques are required.

Status

Commercial Nitrogen and Phosphate Fertilizer Consumption, 1992

According to data collected and compiled by TVA's National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center at Muscle Shoals, Alabama, during the period from July 1, 1991, to June 30, 1992, commercial fertilizers that were sold in the United States contained 11,446,415 tons of nitrogen and 4,217,866 tons of phosphate. In Appendix II, table 14 (page 62) shows state-specific data on the consumption of nitrogen for the year 1992. Appendix table 15 (page 64) shows state-specific data for phosphate for the same period. The reader is cautioned that TVA data is based on sales and therefore is not always indicative of actual use in the state.

Much, if not most, of the commercial fertilizer sold in the United States is used in agricultural production, specifically to fertilize cropland and grazing land. In some states, agriculture accounts for much of the fertilizer sold and applied to the land. In other states, other uses account for a significant amount of the fertilizer sold. Although detailed information is presently collected regarding the fertilization of some agricultural crops, such detailed information is not collected for all crops, nor is it collected for other agricultural and nonagricultural uses. As a result, it is difficult to quantify such uses of commercial fertilizer.

Status of Commercial Nitrogen and Phosphate Utilization, 1992
(Total, Selected Crops, Other Uses)

Data collected by NASS in its Cropping Practices and Agricultural Chemical Usage surveys allows some quantification of the use of commercial fertilizer in agriculture for selected crops. The data from the 1992 surveys was used to estimate the amount of nitrogen and phosphate commercial fertilizer used in these selected agricultural systems. Calculations for the total amount of commercial nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer were made within states for which survey data is collected, using the formula below. Separate calculations were made for each of the thirty-six survey crops.

Acres Planted* x Area Applied (Percent) x Rate Applied per Crop Year = Total Quantity Applied

State average values were used to make these computations. Planted acreage values were adjusted to reflect the most recent estimates for planted acres.

In non-survey states where survey crops were grown in 1992, the amounts of commercial nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer used to produce the crops were estimated using the formula. However, national average values were used for area applied (percent) and rate applied per crop year. For each state, individual calculations for each crop grown in that state were totaled to estimate the total amount of commercial nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer used within the state on those selected crops in 1992.

These data were compared with TVA fertilizer sales data to estimate the amount of commer-cial nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer used within the state for other agricultural and nonagricultural purposes. The reporting period for the TVA data used in these calculations was July 1, 1991, to June 30, 1992. The reporting period for the agricultural chemical usage survey data was the 1992 crop year. This disparity made an exact accounting of commercial fertilizer use impossible. In 1992, approximately 68 percent of the commercial nitrogen fertilizer and 78 percent of the commercial phosphate fertilizer sold in the United States were used on the selected crops for which NASS collects nutrient management information. State summaries of this information are shown in Appendix II: table 14 (page 62) illustrates nitrogen use and table 15 (page 64) phosphate use.

Status of Animal Populations, 1992:
Manure, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Production

National 1992 population information for beef and dairy cattle, hogs and pigs, chickens (broilers), chickens (layers), and turkeys appears in table 5 on page 11 of this report. This population produced an estimated 869.4 million tons of manure, containing 2 million tons of organic nitrogen and 1.4 million tons of organic phosphorus, some of which is recoverable and already used, or available for use, as a nutrient in agricultural production systems.

ESTIMATING ORGANIC NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS

In estimating the amount of organic nitrogen and phosphorus produced as a function of animal production, several factors must be considered. These include:

  • Category 1 Losses--Losses of N and P that occur during collection, storage or treatment, handling, and land application method. Not all of the N and P in freshly voided animal manure can be captured and used as a resource. Losses vary depending upon the specifics of the agricultural waste management system.
  • Category 2 Losses--Manure produced in an environment where collection, storage or treat-ment, handling, and land application are not possible. The manure produced by animals grazing on range or pasture is typically available as a nutrient resource only on the land where it drops.

Van Dyne and Gilbertson (1978) included estimates of the amounts of manure and nutrients that are economically recoverable. The estimates varied from 0, considering Category 1 losses for beef cattle grazing in the southern states, to 100 percent, considering Category 1 losses for chickens (broilers and layers). The values cited for nitrogen and phosphorus account for losses that occur during collection, storage or treatment, handling, and application method. They do not account for the proportion of the total that cannot be captured and managed. In some cases, the values used by Van Dyne and Gilbertson (1978) may not be accurate in 1994. Changes in production techniques, particularly for hogs and pigs, may have changed these factors. The third RCA appraisal process will attempt to update these factors and account for the losses in the final report.

The factors used to compute animal units (A.U.s), volume of manure generated, and amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus produced with the manure are referenced and explained in Appendix I of this report.

CATTLE AND CALVES

There were 85,445,000 cattle and calves raised in the United States in 1992. This total includes beef cattle and calves, and dairy calves. It does not include milking dairy cows or dairy replacement heifers. The volume of manure produced by all cattle and calves in 1992 was an estimated 51 million tons. The amount of organic nitrogen and phosphorus in this manure, accounting for Category 1 losses, was 0.88 million tons of nitrogen and 0.88 million tons of phosphorus. State-level data for manure, organic nitrogen, and organic phosphorus production from cattle and calves are shown in appendix table 16 on page 66.

DAIRY COWS AND REPLACEMENTS

The population of dairy cows and replacement heifers was an estimated 14,115,000 animals in 1992. They produced an estimated 243 million tons of manure. Within this manure was an estimated 1.6 million tons of organic nitrogen and 0.15 million tons of organic phosphorus. These estimates included Category 1 losses. State-level data for manure, organic nitrogen, and organic phosphorus production from dairy cows and replacements are shown in appendix table 17 on page 68.

CHICKENS (LAYERS)

An estimated 367,015,000 layers were raised in 1992. They produced an estimated 17 million tons of manure. In this manure was an estimated 0.12 million tons of organic nitrogen and 0.07 million tons of organic phosphorus. The estimates for nitrogen and phosphorus include Category 1 losses. Category 2 losses are not normally associated with the production of chickens. Most of the manure, nitrogen, and phosphorus produced in these operations would be available as a resource. State-level data for manure, organic nitrogen, and organic phosphorus production from non-broiler chickens are shown in appendix table 18 on page 70.

CHICKENS (BROILERS)

An estimated 6.4 billion broiler-type chickens were raised in 1992. They produced approxi-mately 36 million tons of manure. Within this manure was an estimated 0.3 million tons of organic nitrogen and 0.13 million tons of organic phosphorus. The estimates for nitrogen and phosphorus include Category 1 losses. As with layers, Category 2 losses of nutrients are not normally associated with the production of broilers. State-level detail for manure, organic nitrogen, and organic phosphorus production from broiler operations is shown in appendix table 19 on page 72.

HOGS AND PIGS (BREEDERS)

An estimated 7 million hogs and pigs were raised as breeders in 1992. They accounted for the production of about 19 million tons of manure, which contained an estimated 0.034 million tons of organic nitrogen and 0.038 million tons of organic phosphorus. Nitrogen and phosphorus estimates take into account Category 1 losses but not Category 2 losses. State-level detail for manure, organic nitrogen, and organic phosphorus production from hogs and pigs is shown in appendix table 20 on page 74.

HOGS AND PIGS (MARKET)

An estimated 51 million hogs and pigs were raised for market in 1992. They accounted for the production of about 39 million tons of manure, which contained an estimated 0.06 million tons of organic nitrogen and 0.08 million tons of organic phosphorus. Nitrogen and phosphorus estimates take into account Category 1 losses, but not losses in Category 2. State-level detail for manure, organic nitrogen, and organic phosphorus production from hogs and pigs is shown in appendix table 21 on page 76.

TURKEYS

An estimated 289 million turkeys were raised in 1992. They produced approximately 14 million tons of manure with about 0.12 million tons of organic nitrogen and 0.08 million tons of organic phosphorus. As with other classes of animals, nutrient estimates were made accounting for Category 1 losses only. State-level data for manure, organic nitrogen, and organic phosphorus production from turkeys appear in appendix table 22 on page 78.

SUMMARY

The manure and its content of organic nitrogen and phosphorus produced as a result of animal production represent a valuable resource in agricultural production systems. According to information collected in the 1992 cropping practices survey, about 16.1 percent of the planted corn acres, 19.3 percent of the wheat acres, 5.9 percent of the soybean acres, 3.5 percent of the Irish potato acres, and 3.3 percent of the cotton acres received applications of manure.

The 2 million tons of organic nitrogen and 1.4 million tons of organic phosphorus could satisfy a large amount of the nutrient needs in some locations. Local organic sources of nitrogen and phosphorus are even known to exceed the total needs of the crops grown in some areas. To investigate this situation, the Natural Resources Conservation Service is cooperating with the Economic Research Service to complete a nationwide analysis of confined animal feeding operations, the manure and nutrients produced at such facilities and available for use as a nutrient source, and the ability of agriculture to assimilate the nutrients in an environmentally safe manner. The 1992 Census of Agriculture will be used as the source of crop and animal production data for this study, and the report developed from the study will be issued as Section VII of the final RCA nutrient utilization report.

Status of Commercial Nitrogen and Phosphate Fertilizer Utilization
for 36 Selected Crops in 34 Selected States, 1992

Data compiled by NASS in its 1992 Agricultural Chemical Usage Summary for Vegetables and Field Crops was used to assess the status of commercial nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer utilization during the 1992 crop year for the 36 crops for which information was collected that year. Estimates of planted acres were adjusted from those published in the summaries, based on more recent production estimates. Estimates of total commercial nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer applications for the 36 crops were calculated using the procedure described elsewhere in this report. No computations were made in states that were not part of the 1992 survey.

Approximately 229 million acres were planted to the 36 survey crops in 1992. According to the 1992 Census of Agriculture, this is about 75 percent of the cropland planted that year. The NASS survey process captured commercial nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer use information on about 204 million acres, about 89 percent of the cropland acres planted to those crops in 1992.

For the 36 survey crops, appendix tables 23 and 24 show the following use data for nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer for 1992:

  • Crop name
  • Acres planted (survey states only)
  • Total N and P2O5 applied (tons)
  • Percentage of the 1992 total consumption of N and 2O5 fertilizer
  • Average number of applications
  • Average per acre application rates (pounds per acre)
  • Range in per acre application rates (pounds per acre)
  • Range in application rates (pounds per unit of yield)

The calculation for percentage of the 1992 total nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer consumption was made by comparing total survey application rates with TVA fertilizer sales information. This value shows the relative importance among the crops as consumers of commercial nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers.

The range in nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer application rates as a function of crop yield unit was calculated to show the variability in application rates associated with the use of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers for producing a given crop in different geographic areas. When compared with typical nitrogen and phosphorus crop uptake information, the values give an indication of the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus not used by the plant and therefore subject to becoming an environmental problem.

ASPARAGUS

The six survey states produced 86,310 acres of asparagus in 1992, accounting for about 97 percent of U.S. commercial production for that year. Of that acreage, 64 percent received nitrogen fertilizer and 28 percent received phosphate fertilizer. The average rate of nitrogen fertilizer application was 124 pounds per acre. Average application rates by state ranged from 63 to 215 pounds per acre. Application rates as a function of yield unit ranged from 3.3 pounds per cwt in Washington to 7.4 pounds per cwt in California.

The average rate of phosphate fertilizer application was 66 pounds per acre. Application rates of phosphate fertilizer ranged from 37 to 139 pounds per acre. Application rates as a function of yield ranged from 1.9 pounds per cwt in Washington to 6 pounds per cwt in New Jersey. Individual state data are presented in appendix table 25 on page 84.

LIMA BEANS, FRESH

In 1992, Georgia was the single survey state for lima beans raised for the fresh market. Georgia raised 4,200 acres of lima beans that year. This was nearly all the production for fresh market consumption. One hundred percent of the acreage received nitrogen fertilizer at an application rate of 98 pounds per acre. Ninety-nine percent of the acreage received phosphate fertilizer at an application rate of 52 pounds per acre. The application rate per yield unit was 2.8 pounds of nitrogen per cwt of yield and 1.5 pounds of phosphate per cwt. A summary of Georgia's data is presented in appendix table 26 on page 84.

SNAP BEANS, FRESH

The seven survey states produced 71,600 acres of fresh market snap beans in 1992, accounting for about 79 percent of total production for that year. Of that acreage, 96 percent received nitrogen fertilizer and 90 percent received phosphate fertilizer. The average rate of nitrogen fertilizer application was 82 pounds per acre. Application rates by state ranged from 43 to 120 pounds per acre. Application rates based on unit of yield ranged from a low of 1.2 pounds of nitrogen per cwt in Michigan to a high of 3 pounds per cwt in North Carolina. The average rate of phosphate fertilizer application was 87 pounds per acre. Application rates as a function of yield unit ranged from 1.2 pounds of phosphate per cwt of yield in California to New Jersey's 2.5 pounds of phosphate per cwt. Data for the individual states are in appendix table 27 on page 85.

SNAP BEANS, PROCESSED

The ten survey states produced 158,530 acres of snap beans for processing in 1992, accounting for about 78 percent of total production in that year. Of that acreage, 98 percent received nitrogen fertilizer and 94 percent received phosphate fertilizer. The average application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was 64 pounds per acre. Application rates by state ranged from 35 to 136 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield spread from a low of 13 pounds per ton of yield in Michigan to a high of 19.7 pounds per ton in Wisconsin. The average rate of phosphate fertilizer application was 64 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from a low of 13.3 pounds of phosphate per ton of yield in Michigan to a high of 47 pounds per ton in Washington. Data for individual states are given in appendix table 28 on page 86. Data for some states were suppressed for reasons of confidentiality and therefore not considered in this analysis.

BROCCOLI

Four survey states produced 111,600 acres of broccoli in 1992 and accounted for almost all commercial broccoli production in that year. Of that acreage, 97 percent received nitrogen fertilizer and 91 percent received phosphate fertilizer. The average rate of nitrogen fertilizer application was 233 pounds per acre. Application rates by state ranged from 149 to 275 pounds per acre. Application rates based on unit of yield ranged from 1.9 pounds of nitrogen per cwt of yield in Texas to 2.8 pounds per cwt in Arizona and Oregon, and from 0.8 pound of phosphate per cwt in California to Arizona's 2.2 pounds of phosphate per cwt. Individual state data for broccoli are found in appendix table 29 on page 87.

CABBAGE, FRESH

The nine survey states produced 70,000 acres of cabbage in 1992, which amounted to about 89 percent of total commercial production during that year. Of this acreage, 98 percent received nitrogen fertilizer and 93 percent phosphate fertilizer. The average rate of nitrogen fertilizer application was 155 pounds per acre. Average application rates by state had a low of 88 pounds per acre and a high of 186 pounds per acre. Application rates based on unit of yield ranged from 0.23 pound of nitrogen per cwt in Texas to 0.96 pound per cwt in New Jersey. The average rate of phosphate fertilizer application was 111 pounds per acre. Application rates based on unit of yield were 0.2 pound of phosphate per cwt to 0.8 pound of phosphate per cwt. Appendix table 30 (page 88) shows data for the individual states.

CABBAGE, PROCESSED

Four survey states produced 5,300 acres of processed cabbage in 1992, accounting for about 84 percent of commercial production during that year. All of that acreage received both nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers. The average application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was 103 pounds per acre; the range was from 36 to 114 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 2.9 pounds of nitrogen per ton of yield in Wisconsin to New York's 4.1 pounds per ton. The average application rate of phosphate fertilizer was 83 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield were 2.2 pounds of phosphate per ton in Wisconsin and 3.2 pounds per ton in New York. Data for individual states are displayed in appendix table 31 on page 89. Some of the state data were suppressed and were not considered in this analysis.

CARROTS

The nine survey states produced 100,800 acres of carrots for all uses in 1992, which accounted for about 93 percent of total commercial production that year. Of this acreage, 96 percent received nitrogen fertilizer and 95 percent received phosphate fertilizer. The average nitrogen application rate was 234 pounds per acre. Application rates had a low of 41 pounds per acre and a high of 276 pounds per acre. Application rates based on unit of yield ranged from 0.13 pound of nitrogen per cwt in Wisconsin to 0.99 pound per cwt in Arizona. The average application rate for phosphate fertilizer was 187 pounds per acre. Yield unit application rates ranged from 0.1 pound of phosphate per cwt in Washington to 0.7 pound of phosphate per cwt in California. Data for individual states are shown in appendix table 32 on page 90.

CAULIFLOWER

The six survey states produced 56,900 acres of cauliflower in 1992, accounting for nearly all commercial production. Of this acreage, 96 percent received nitrogen fertilizer and 92 percent phosphate fertilizer. The average application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was 260 pounds per acre. Average application rates by state ranged from 80 to 283 pounds per acre. Application rates based on unit of yield ranged from 0.75 pound of nitrogen per cwt in Michigan to Arizona's 2.57 pounds per cwt. The average application rate of phosphate fertilizer was 125 pounds per acre. Using yield units as a basis, application rates ranged from 0.6 pound of phosphate per cwt of yield in New York to 2.2 pounds per cwt in Arizona. Data for individual states for cauliflower are presented in appendix table 33 on page 91.

CELERY

The five survey states produced 33,920 acres of celery in 1992, about 99 percent of commercial production that year. Of that acreage, 97 percent received nitrogen fertilizer and 95 percent received phosphate fertilizer. The average nitrogen fertilizer application rate was 305 pounds per acre. Application rates ranged from 97 to 574 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 0.23 pound of nitrogen per cwt in Florida to 1.28 pounds per cwt in New York. The average application rate for phosphate fertilizer was 230 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield had a narrow range of 0.3 to 0.6 pound of phosphate per cwt of yield. Data for individual states are presented in appendix table 34 on page 92. Some of the data for Texas were suppressed and were not considered in this analysis.

FIELD CORN

The seventeen survey states produced 71,375,000 acres of field corn in 1992, accounting for about 90 percent of total production during that year. Of that acreage, 97 percent received nitrogen fertilizer and 82 percent received phosphate fertilizer. The average application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was 129 pounds per acre. Average rates by state ranged from a low of 78 pounds per acre to a high of 160 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from a low of 0.7 pound of nitrogen per bushel of yield in Pennsylvania to South Carolina's high of 1.6 pounds per bushel. The average phosphate fertilizer application rate was 57 pounds per acre. The range of application rates per yield unit was from 0.3 to 0.6 pound of phosphate per bushel of yield. Data for individual states for field corn is illustrated in appendix table 35 on page 93.

SWEET CORN, FRESH

The eleven survey states produced 157,100 acres of sweet corn for fresh market in 1992, accounting for about 69 percent of total commercial production during that year. Of that acreage, 92 percent received nitrogen fertilizer and 93 percent received phosphate fertilizer. The average rate of nitrogen fertilizer application was 119 pounds per acre; average rates by state ranged from 67 pounds per acre to 180 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 0.7 pound of nitrogen per cwt in Georgia to 1.6 pounds per cwt in New Jersey. The average rate of phosphate fertilizer application was 88 pounds per acre. Application rates had a low of 0.7 pound of phosphate per cwt of yield in Oregon to a high of 1.2 pounds of phosphate per cwt in New York. Appendix table 36 on page 94 has data for the individual states.

SWEET CORN, PROCESSED

The seven survey states produced 486,300 acres of processed sweet corn in 1992, accounting for about 91 percent of commercial production. Of that acreage, 99 percent received nitrogen fertilizer and 91 percent received phosphate fertilizer. The average rate of nitrogen fertilizer application was 135 pounds per acre. Application rates ranged from a low of 110 pounds per acre to a high of 180 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 17.4 pounds per ton of yield in Minnesota to 27 pounds per ton in Washington. The average application rate for phosphate fertilizer was 60 pounds per acre. Application rates based on unit of yield ranged from 17.4 pounds of phosphate per ton in Minnesota to Washington's 27 pounds per ton. Data for individual states are given in appendix table 37 on page 95.

UPLAND COTTON

The six survey states produced 10,065,000 acres of cotton in 1992. This was about 79 percent of total commercial production for that year. None of the survey states were in the historic cotton-producing area of the southeastern states, where cotton is again becoming an important crop. Of the 10+ million acres covered by the 1992 survey, 80 percent received nitrogen fertilizer and 48 percent received phosphate fertilizer. The average application rate for nitrogen fertilizer was 88 pounds per acre. Application rates ranged from 66 pounds per acre in Texas to 131 pounds per acre in California. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 0.1 pound of nitrogen per pound of yield in California to 0.15 pound of nitrogen per pound of yield in Mississippi and Texas. The average application rate of phosphate fertilizer was 48 pounds per acre. Application rates had a range of 0.04 pound of phosphate per pound of yield in Arizona to 0.1 pound of phosphate per pound of yield in Texas. Data for individual states are shown in appendix table 38 on page 96.

CUCUMBERS, FRESH

The ten survey states produced 45,600 acres of fresh market cucumbers in 1992, accounting for about 84 percent of commercial production. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied to 96 percent of the acreage, and phosphate fertilizer was applied to 87 percent. The average nitrogen fertilizer application rate was 120 pounds per acre. Nitrogen fertilizer application rates had a low of 51 pounds per acre and a high of 439 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 0.5 pound of nitrogen per cwt in Texas to North Carolina's 3.4 pounds per cwt. The average application rate for phosphate fertilizer was 80 pounds per acre. Application rates based on yield unit show a low of 0.3 pound of phosphate per cwt and a high of 1.9 pounds per cwt in North Carolina. Data for individual states are displayed in appendix table 39 on page 97. Some state data for this crop were suppressed and not used in this analysis.

CUCUMBERS, PROCESSED

The eleven survey states produced 69,900 acres of processed cucumbers in 1992, which accounted for about 65 percent of commercial production. Of that acreage, 99 percent received nitrogen fertilizer and 87 percent received phosphate fertilizer. Average application rate for nitrogen fertilizer was 86 pounds per acre, ranging from a low of 69 pounds per acre to a high of 185 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 11.5 pounds of nitrogen per ton of yield in California to 22.2 pounds per ton in North Carolina. The average application rate for phosphate fertilizer was 66 pounds per acre. Application rates per yield unit spread from 6.2 pounds of phosphate per ton of yield in Wisconsin to 16.2 pounds per ton in Texas. Data for individual states are presented in appendix table 40 on page 98.

EGGPLANT

Two survey states produced 3,700 acres of eggplant, accounting for nearly all commercial production in 1992. Of this acreage, 99% received nitrogen fertilizer and 84% received phosphate fertilizer. The average application rate for nitrogen fertilizer was 191 pounds per acre; it ranged from a low of 189 pounds per acre to a high of 198 pounds per acre. Fertilizer application rates per unit of yield were 0.7 pound of nitrogen per cwt of yield in Florida and 1.1 pounds of nitrogen per cwt in New Jersey and 0.4 pound of phosphate per cwt in Florida and 0.7 pound of phosphate per cwt in New Jersey. The average application rate for phosphate fertilizer was 124 pounds per acre. Data for the two survey states are shown in appendix table 41 on page 99.

HEAD LETTUCE

The seven survey states produced 208,700 acres of head lettuce in 1992. This was about 96% of the commercial production for that year. Of that acreage, 98 percent received nitrogen fertilizer and 85 percent received phosphate fertilizer. The average nitrogen fertilizer application rate was 230 pounds per acre, ranging from 32 to 329 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 0.18 pound of nitrogen per cwt in Florida to 1.38 pounds per cwt in Arizona. The average application rate of phosphate fertilizer was 163 pounds per acre. Yield unit application rates had a range of 0.2 pound of phosphate per cwt in Michigan to Texas' 0.7 pound per cwt. Data for individual states for head lettuce are shown in appendix table 42 on page 99.

OTHER LETTUCE

The three survey states produced 57,700 acres of leaf, romaine, and other nonhead lettuce in 1992, accounting for about 98 percent of the commercial production. Nitrogen fertilizer was used on 92 percent of the acreage, and phosphate fertilizer was used on 88 percent. The average nitrogen fertilizer application rate was 186 pounds per acre. The range spread from a low of 88 pounds per acre to a high of 390 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 0.6 pound of nitrogen per cwt of yield in Florida to 1.7 pounds per cwt in Arizona. The average application rate for phosphate fertilizer was 108 pounds per acre. Application rates per yield unit ranged from 0.2 pound of phosphate per cwt in California to 0.6 pound per cwt in Arizona. Data for individual survey states are found in appendix table 43 on page 100.

CANTALOUPE

The five survey states produced 103,200 acres of cantaloupe in 1992, accounting for about 93 percent of commercial production for that year. Of that acreage, nitrogen fertilizer was used on 96 percent of the acreage; phosphate fertilizer was used on 67 percent. The average nitrogen fertilizer application rate was 105 pounds per acre. The lowest rate was 66 pounds per acre and the highest was 138 pounds per acre. Fertilizer application rates per unit of yield ranged from 0.6 pound of nitrogen per cwt of yield in California to 1.15 pounds of nitrogen per cwt in Georgia. The average application rate for phosphate fertilizer was 102 pounds per acre. Application rates as a function of unit yield ranged from 0.5 pound of phosphate per cwt of yield in Texas to 1.2 pounds of phosphate per cwt in Michigan. Data for individual survey states for cantaloupe are shown in appendix table 44 on page 100.

HONEYDEW MELONS

The three survey states produced 25,600 acres of honeydew melons in 1992, nearly all the commercial production. Nitrogen fertilizer was used on 96 percent of the acreage; phosphate fertilizer was used on 74 percent. The average nitrogen fertilizer application rate was 80 pounds per acre. It ranged from a low of 57 pounds per acre to a high of 146 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 0.3 pound of nitrogen per cwt of yield in Texas to 1.0 pound of nitrogen per cwt in Arizona. The average rate of phosphate fertilizer application was 61 pounds per acre. Unit of yield application rates were 0.3 pound of phosphate per cwt of yield to 1.0 pound of phosphate per cwt. Appendix table 45 on page 101 presents information for the three survey states.

WATERMELONS

The six survey states produced 178,500 acres of watermelons in 1992. This accounted for about 70 percent of commercial production for that year. Nitrogen fertilizer was used on 94 percent of the acreage, and phosphate fertilizer on 89 percent. The average rate of nitrogen fertilizer application was 126 pounds per acre, ranging from 65 to 270 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 0.5 pound of nitrogen per cwt in California to 1.0 pound of nitrogen per cwt of yield in Arizona. The average application rate for phosphate fertilizer was 86 pounds per acre. Application rates based on unit of yield had a narrow range of 0.3 pound of phosphate per cwt of yield to 0.6 pound of phosphate per cwt. Data for individual survey states for watermelons are shown in appendix table 46 on page 101.

DRY ONIONS

The nine survey states produced 113,900 acres of dry onions in 1992, about 77 percent of commercial production. Of that acreage, 98 percent received nitrogen fertilizer and 86 percent received phosphate fertilizer. The average application rate for nitrogen fertilizer was 185 pounds per acre. It ranged from 92 to 305 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 0.3 pound of nitrogen per cwt in Wisconsin to 0.99 pound of nitrogen per cwt in Georgia. The average application rate for phosphate fertilizer was 129 pounds per acre. Application rates as a function of yield unit ranged from 0.2 pound of phosphate per cwt of yield to 1.1 pounds of phosphate per cwt. Data for individual survey states are given in appendix table 47 on page 102.

GREEN PEAS, PROCESSED

The nine survey states produced 329,400 acres of processed green peas in 1992, accounting for about 92 percent of commercial production. Nitrogen fertilizer was used on 83 percent of the acreage and phosphate fertilizer on 69 percent. The average application rate for nitrogen fertilizer was 33 pounds per acre, with a spread of 26 to 101 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 14.1 pounds of nitrogen per ton of yield in Minnesota to 27.1 pounds of nitrogen per ton in Oregon. The average rate of phosphate fertilizer application was 57 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield had a low of 21.6 pounds of phosphate per ton of yield in Minnesota and a high of 68.8 pounds of phosphate per ton in Oregon. Appendix table 48 (page 103) shows data for individual survey states. Data for some of the survey states were suppressed and not considered in this analysis.

BELL PEPPERS

The five survey states produced 61,500 acres of bell peppers in 1992, about 91 percent of commercial production. Nitrogen fertilizer was used on 98 percent of the acreage; phosphate fertilizer was used on 87 percent. The average application rate for nitrogen fertilizer was 208 pounds per acre. It ranged from 81 to 254 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 0.34 pound of nitrogen per cwt of yield in Texas to 1.96 pounds of nitrogen per cwt in New Jersey. The average application rate for phosphate fertilizer was 113 pounds per acre. Yield unit application rates spread from 0.4 pound of phosphate per cwt of yield to 2.9 pounds of phosphate per cwt in North Carolina. Data for individual survey states for bell peppers are shown in appendix table 49 on page 104.

IRISH POTATOES

The eleven survey states produced 1,104,300 acres of fall season potatoes in 1992. This accounted for about 96 percent of the commercial production during that year. Nitrogen fertilizer was used on 100 percent of the acreage and phosphate fertilizer on 99 percent. The average application rate for nitrogen fertilizer was 200 pounds per acre. It ranged from a low of 90 pounds per acre to a high of 308 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 0.4 pound of nitrogen per cwt of yield in Oregon to 0.7 pound of nitrogen per cwt in Idaho. The average application rate for phosphate fertilizer was 159 pounds per acre. Application rates based on yield units had a narrow range of 0.3 pound of phosphate per cwt of yield to 0.7 pound of phosphate per cwt in New York. Data for individual survey states are given in appendix table 50 on page 105.

RICE

The two rice survey states produced 1,879,000 acres in 1992, about 64 percent of commercial production. Nitrogen fertilizer was used on 98 percent of the acreage; phosphate fertilizer was used on 34 percent. The average application rate for nitrogen fertilizer was 133 pounds per acre. It averaged 111 pounds per acre in Louisiana and 143 pounds per acre in Arkansas. Application rates per unit of yield were about 0.2 pound of nitrogen per pound of yield in both states. Phosphate fertilizer application rates averaged 44 pounds per acre. The application rate per yield unit was 0.01 pound of phosphate per pound of yield for both states. Data for the two survey states are given in appendix table 51 on page 106.

SOYBEANS

The sixteen survey states produced 52,900,000 acres of soybeans in 1992, about 89 percent of commercial production. Nitrogen fertilizer was used on 15 percent of the acreage and phosphate fertilizer being used on 22 percent. The average application rate for nitrogen fertilizer was 22 pounds per acre. Application rates had a low of 12 pounds per acre and a high of 44 pounds per acre. Fertilizer application rates per unit of yield ranged from 0.3 pound of nitrogen per bushel of yield in Indiana to 1.2 pounds of nitrogen per bushel in Kentucky. The average application rate for phosphate fertilizer was 47 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield had a low of 0.7 pound of phosphate per bushel of yield in Nebraska and a high of 1.9 pounds of phosphate per bushel in Kentucky. Appendix table 52 on page 107 supplies data for individual survey states.

SPINACH, FRESH

The three survey states produced 13,200 acres of fresh market spinach in 1992, about 87 percent of commercial production. Nitrogen fertilizer was used on 97 percent of the acreage and phosphate fertilizer on 80 percent. Nitrogen fertilizer application rates averaged 113 pounds per acre. They ranged from a low of 79 pounds per acre to a high of 152 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 0.58 pound of nitrogen per cwt in California to 1.69 pounds of nitrogen per cwt in New Jersey. The average phosphate fertilizer application rate was 80 pounds per acre. The application rates based on unit of yield ranged from 0.4 pound of phosphate per cwt in California to Texas' 1.4 pound of phosphate per cwt. Appendix table 53 on page 108 has data for the three survey states for fresh market spinach.

SPINACH, PROCESSED

The four survey states produced 13,300 acres of processed spinach in 1992, representing 95 percent of commercial production. Ninety-eight percent of the acreage received nitrogen fertilizer and 90 percent received phosphate fertilizer. The average application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was 212 pounds per acre. It ranged from 173 to 231 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield averaged 35.5 pounds of nitrogen per ton of yield in California. Suppression of data in the other survey states prevented calculation of this value in those states. The average application rate of phosphate fertilizer was 115 pounds per acre. Application rates for unit of yield were 12.4 pounds of phosphate per ton in California and 25.4 pounds of phosphate per ton in Texas. Data for individual survey states are shown in appendix table 54 on page 108. Data suppressed in several of the survey states were not used in this analysis.

STRAWBERRIES

The nine survey states produced 46,800 acres of strawberries in 1992, accounting for 93 percent of commercial production. Nitrogen fertilizer was used on 94 percent of the acreage; phosphate fertilizer was used on 84 percent. The average nitrogen fertilizer application rate was 189 pounds per acre, with a low of 32 pounds per acre and a high of 280 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 0.45 pound of nitrogen per cwt of yield in Florida to 2.84 pounds of nitrogen per cwt in New Jersey. The average application rate of phosphate fertilizer was 85 pounds per acre. Unit of yield application rates spread from a low of 0.2 pound of phosphate per cwt of yield to 2.2 pounds of phosphate per cwt in New Jersey. Data for the individual survey states are presented in appendix table 55 on page 109.

TOMATOES, FRESH

The eight survey states produced 106,200 acres of fresh market tomatoes in 1992, about 78 percent of commercial production. Nitrogen fertilizer was used on 99 percent of the acreage and phosphate fertilizer on 87 percent. The average application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was 167 pounds per acre. It spread from a low of 72 to a high of 187 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 0.40 pound of nitrogen per cwt of yield in Georgia to 4.56 pounds of nitrogen per cwt in Texas. The average application rate for phosphate fertilizer was 113 pounds per acre. Application rates as a function of yield unit ranged from 0.3 pound of phosphate per cwt to 3.6 pounds of phosphate per cwt. Data for the individual survey states for fresh market tomatoes are given in appendix table 56 on page 110.

TOMATOES, PROCESSED

Five survey states produced 252,200 acres of processed tomatoes in 1992. This accounted for about 91 percent of commercial production. Nitrogen fertilizer was used on 100 percent of the acreage and phosphate fertilizer on 92 percent. The average application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was 155 pounds per acre; it had a low of 66 pounds per acre and a high of 157 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield averaged 2.44 pounds of nitrogen per ton of yield in Michigan and 4.75 pounds of nitrogen per ton in California. Suppression of data in other survey states prevented calculation of this value in those states. The average application rate of phosphate fertilizer was 93 pounds per acre. Application rates for unit of yield were 2.8 pounds of phosphate per ton of yield in California and 3.0 pounds of phosphate per ton of yield in Michigan. Data for individual survey states are in appendix table 57 on page 111.

DURUM WHEAT

North Dakota produced 2,200,000 acres of durum wheat in 1992, about 87 percent of total production. Nitrogen fertilizer was used on 73 percent of the acreage at an average application rate of 51 pounds per acre. The application rate per unit of yield was 1.3 pounds of nitrogen per bushel of yield. Phosphate fertilizer was used on 60 percent of the acreage at an average application rate of 26 pounds per acre. The unit of yield application rate was 0.7 pound of phosphate per bushel of yield. Data for the survey state are presented in appendix table 58 on page 112.

SPRING WHEAT

The four survey states produced 17,350,000 acres of spring wheat in 1992. This accounted for about 93 percent of total production. Nitrogen fertilizer was used on 81 percent of the acreage, and phosphate fertilizer was used on 72 percent. The average application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was 57 pounds per acre, and the range was from 28 to 86 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 0.9 pound of nitrogen per bushel of yield in Montana to 1.7 pounds of nitrogen per bushel of yield in Minnesota. The average phosphate fertilizer application rate was 29 pounds per acre. Application rates based on yield unit had a limited range of 0.7 pound to 0.8 pound of phosphate per bushel of yield. Data for individual survey states are displayed in appendix table 59 on page 112.

WINTER WHEAT

The fifteen survey states produced 44,410,000 acres of winter wheat in 1992, accounting for 87 percent of total production. Nitrogen fertilizer was used on 85 percent of the acreage, and phosphate fertilizer was used on 48 percent. The average application rate for nitrogen fertilizer was 66 pounds per acre. It ranged from a low of 35 to a high of 101 pounds per acre. Application rates per unit of yield ranged from 1.2 pounds of nitrogen per bushel of yield in Montana to 2.5 pounds of nitrogen per bushel in Oklahoma. The average application rate for phosphate fertilizer was 38 pounds per acre. Unit of yield application rates spread from a low of 0.5 pound of phosphate per bushel of yield to a high of 1.4 pounds of phosphate per bushel in Illinois. Appendix table 60 on page 113 presents data for the individual survey states.

SUMMARY

The thirty-six crops considered in this status and trends report accounted for slightly more than 204 million cropland acres in 1992 in the thirty-four states surveyed by NASS. This is 89 percent of the total U.S. production of these crops in that year. It is also 67.5 percent of the cropland acres planted in 1992. Approximately 7 million tons of commercial nitrogen fertilizers were applied to these crops in 1992. This represents about 61 percent of the 11.4 million tons of commercial nitrogen fertilizers sold in 1992.

Corn was the single largest consumer of commercial nitrogen fertilizers, receiving about 39 percent of the fertilizer sold. Winter wheat was second, receiving about 11 percent of the amount sold; cotton and spring wheat were third, each receiving slightly more than 3 percent of the total amount sold. Rice was the only other crop receiving more than 1 percent of the total amount sold. All other crops in the survey received less than 1 percent of the national volume of commercial nitrogen fertilizer sold in 1992.

Approximately 2.9 million tons of commercial phosphate fertilizers were applied to the survey crops, representing 68 percent of the commercial phosphate fertilizers sold in 1992. As with nitrogen, corn received the largest share (39 percent) of phosphate fertilizers sold. Winter wheat was second, receiving about 9.6 percent of the amount sold, and soybeans were third, receiving about 6.5 percent. Spring wheat, fall potatoes, and upland cotton were the only other crops to receive more than 1 percent of the total amount sold. All other crops received less than 1 percent of total sales.

An important feature of phosphate fertilization was not considered in this analysis. That is the application of phosphate fertilizers on soils where soil tests indicate a high or very high availa-bility of phosphate. The potential for phosphate to become a pollutant may increase in such situations. Another factor that was not considered was the use of organic sources of nutrients on the same acreages where commercial fertilizers were used; no data set for this was available. Although it was not possible to quantify this situation, it is certain that some of the 3.8 million tons of organic nitrogen and 1.4 million tons of organic phosphorus produced as a function of the agricultural animal industry were applied to cropland on acreage where commercial fertilizers were also used.

References

Barkema, Alan and Michael L. Cook. "The Changing U.S. Pork Industry: A Dilemma for Public Policy." Economic Review. Second Quarter, 1993.

Berry, Janice T. and Melanie H. Montgomery. Commercial Fertilizers 1993. TVA-National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center. Muscle Shoals, Alabama. December 1993.

Donaldson, Regina. Fertilizer Trends. TVA-National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center. Muscle Shoals, Alabama. 1992.

USDA. Agricultural Statistics 1983. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1983.

USDA. Agricultural Statistics 1985. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1985.

USDA Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. Historical Commodity Data Series, 1950-1985. Washington, D.C. August 1989.

USDA Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. Land Use Summary, Crop Years 1985-1993 with Projections for 1994-1999. Washington, D.C. February 1994.

USDA Economic Research Service. Agricultural Resources: Inputs--Situation and Outlook Report AR-29. Washington, D.C. February, 1993.

USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, Agricultural Statistics Board. Agricultural Chemical Usage: 1992 Field Crops Summary. Washington, D.C. March 1993.

USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, Agricultural Statistics Board. Agricultural Chemical Usage Vegetables: 1992 Summary. Washington, D.C. June 1993.

USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, Agricultural Statistics Board. Crop Production: 1993 Summary. Cr Pr 2-1(94). Washington, D.C. January 1994.

USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, Agricultural Statistics Board. Cattle. Washington, D.C. February 1994.

USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, Agricultural Statistics Board. Hogs and Pigs. Washington, D.C. December 1993.

USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, Agricultural Statistics Board. Layers and Egg Production: 1993 Summary. Washington, D.C. January 1994.

USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, Agricultural Statistics Board. Poultry: Production and Value: 1993 Summary. Washington, D.C. May 1994.

USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, Agricultural Statistics Board. Vegetables: 1993 Summary, Reissued. Vg 1-2(94). Washington, D.C. February 1994.

USDA Statistical Reporting Service, Crop Reporting Board. Cattle: Final Estimates for 1980-83. Statistical Bulletin Number 720. Washington, D.C. January 1985.

USDA Statistical Reporting Service, Crop Reporting Board. Hogs and Pigs: Final Estimates for 1979-82. Statistical Bulletin Number 716. Washington, D.C. March 1984.

USDA Statistical Reporting Service, Crop Reporting Board. Poultry: Production, Disposition, and Income: Final Estimates for 1980-83. Statistical Bulletin Number 725. Washington, D.C. April 1985.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1987 Census of Agriculture. Volume 1, Parts 1-51. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. June 1990.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Economics and Statistics Administration. 1992 Census of Agriculture. Volume 1, Parts 1-51. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. October 1994.

Van Dyne, Donald L. and Conrad B. Gilbertson. Estimating U.S. Livestock and Poultry Manure and Nutrient Production. USDA Economics, Statistics, and Cooperative Service. Washington, D.C. 1978.

Vroomen, Harry and Harold Taylor. Fertilizer Use and Price Statistics, 1960-91. Statistical Bulletin Number 842. USDA Economic Research Service. November 1992.

Appendix 1

Computational factors and methods for calculating animal units, volume of manure produced yearly, and amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus produced with the manure.

Animal category Number of animals per A.U.
(animal unit)
Manure
Tons per A.U. Pounds per ton
N P
Cattle and calves
Beef* 1.67 9.8 11.6
(3.5)
4.1
(3.5)
Dairy** 0.87 15.0 10.2
(4.1)
1.4
(1.2)
Hogs and pigs
Breeding 2.5 6.6 15
(3.7)
4.8
(4.1)
Market 7.7 12.96 13.2
(3.2)
5.0
(4.2)
Poultry
Chickens (layers) 240 11.0 27.4
(13.7)
10.2
(8.7)
Chickens (broilers) 450 14.6 27.5
(16.5)
8.5
(7.2)
Turkeys 83 8.0 33.8
(16.9)
12.7
(10.8)

*Beef numbers comprise beef cows that have calved + [heifers (all) - heifers (milk replacement)] + steers + bulls + (all calves times the proportion equal to beef cows that calved divided by all cows that calved). This includes bulls and "other" heifers as beef, but shouldn't be far off.
**Dairy numbers comprise milk cows that have calved + heifers (milk replacement) + (all calves times the proportion equal to milk cows that calved divided by all cows that calved).

The numbers for nitrogen and phosphorus include two sets of values. The first set are estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus in the manure as excreted by the animal. They represent the content in each ton of manure produced by each animal unit (A.U.). The second set of values, inside the parentheses ( ), take into account nutrient losses that occur due to storage and handling. They represent the nitrogen and phosphorus content in each ton of manure produced by each A.U. when the manure is applied to land. These values do not take into account losses that may occur after application. Estimates of the quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus were made using the values in the parentheses.

BEEF NUMBERS

Assumed average weight of 600 pounds. Values for "as excreted" manure from Table 4-8, NRCS Agricultural Waste Management Field Handbook (AWMFH) - Manure weight 54 lb/day 1000#, N - 0.31 lb/day/1000#, P - 0.11 lb/day/1000#, K - 0.25 lb/day/1000#. Losses of N at 70% based on an integration of 30-60% losses on open lots (tending to 60% losses from voided wastes on pasture and range). Table 11-5 AWMFH is referenced here and in the rest of the discussion for other animal types. Losses of P at 15% because element is conservative, experiencing losses primarily in runoff of manure pack and piles. Losses of potassium (K) at 10%, because much potassium in liquid that can infiltrate into surface layer and not be as subject to runoff.

The inventory numbers for cattle and calves listed in appendix table 16 (page 66) were considered to be in place for the entire year. Manure calculations were made based upon this assumption.

DAIRY NUMBERS

Assumed average weight 1150 pounds which accounts for younger stock other than lactating animals. Values for "as excreted" manure from Table 4-5, AWMFH - Manure weight 82 lb/day/1000#, N - 0.42 lb/day/1000#, P - 0.06 lb/day/1000#, K - 0.25 lb/day/1000#. Losses of nitrogen at 60% based on an integration of 30-60% losses on open lots (tending to 60% losses in majority of country); 70-80% losses in long-term storage (greater than 90 days), treatment lagoons, and pasture situations; and lesser losses in closed storages. Losses of phosphorus at 15% because element is conservative, experiencing losses primarily in runoff of manure pack and piles. Losses of potassium (K) at 10%, because much K in liquid that can infiltrate into surface layer and not be as subject to runoff.

The inventory numbers for dairy cows and replacements listed in appendix table 17 (page 68) were considered to be in place for the entire year. Manure calculations were made based upon this assumption.

CHICKENS (LAYERS)

Assumed average weight 4.2 pounds. Values for as excreted manure from Table 4-14, AWMFH - Manure weight 60 lb/day/1000#, N - 0.83 lb/day/1000#, P - 0.31 lb/day per 1000#, K - 0.34 lb/day/1000#. Losses of nitrogen at 50% based on an integration of 60-70% losses in long-term storage and treatment lagoons and 30-40% losses as litter. Losses of phosphorus at 15% because element is conservative. Losses of potassium at 10%.

The inventory numbers for chickens (non-broilers) listed in appendix table 18 (page 70) were considered to be in place for the entire year. Manure calculations were made based upon this assumption.

CHICKENS (BROILERS)

Assumed average weight 2.2 pounds. Values for as excreted manure from Table 4-14, AWMFH - Manure weight 80 lb/day/1000#, N - 1.05 lb/day/1000#, P - 0.34 lb/day per 1000#, K - 0.46 lb/day/1000#. Losses of nitrogen at 40% based on losses in the house computed from Tables 4-14 and 4-15. Losses of phosphorus at 15% because element is conservative. Losses of potassium at 10%.

A production cycle of 63 days per flock was used for estimating manure production and quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus for broilers. The values for total A.U.s listed for broiler chickens in appendix table 19 (page 72) were divided by a factor of 5.7 for making the manure, nitrogen, and phosphorus estimates.

HOGS AND PIGS

Breeding sows and market pigs were analyzed separately. Assumed average weight for sows was 400 pounds. Assumed median weight for market pigs 130 pounds. Values for as excreted manure calculated from Table 4-11, AWMFH, Swine Waste Characterization. Manure and nutrient contents were calculated considering both the gestation and lactation periods for sows and the nursery and grower period for market pigs. Values used for manure production for sows were 27.2 lb/day/1000# (gestation) and 60 lb/day/1000# (lactation). N production was 0.19 lb/day/1000# (gestation) and 0.47 lb/day/1000# (lactation). P production was 0.063 lb/day/1000# (gestation) and 0.15 lb/day/1000# (lactation). The inventory numbers for breeding swine listed in appendix table 20 (page 74) were considered to be in place for the entire year. Manure and nutrient value calculations were made based upon this assumption.

A production cycle of 154 days per litter with 2.2 cycles per year was assumed for market pigs. Values for manure production were 106 lbs/day/1000# (nursery) and 63.4 lbs/day/1000# (grower). N production was 0.60 lbs/day/1000# (nursery) and 0.42 lbs/day/1000# (grower). P production was 0.25 lbs/day/1000# (nursery) and 0.16 lbs/day/1000# (grower). Production values from appendix table 21 (page 76) were divided by 2.2. Manure and nutrient calculations were made based upon these assumptions.

Nutrient losses for nitrogen were estimated to be 75% based upon an integration of 30-60% losses on open lots (tending to 60% losses in majority of country) and near 80% losses from voided wastes in treatment lagoons, which are the most common storage/treatment option. Losses of phosphorus were estimated at 15%. Most phosphorus losses are in manures that are unaccounted for or are in sludges.

TURKEYS

Assumed average weight 12 pounds. Values for as excreted manure from Table 4-14, AWMFH - Manure weight 44 lb/day/1000#, N - 0.74 lb/day/1000#, P - 0.28 lb/day/1000#, K - 0.28 lb/day/1000#. Losses of nitrogen at 50% based on an integration of 30-60% losses on open lots (tending to 60% losses in majority of country) and 40% losses from voided waste in houses. Losses of phosphorus at 15% because element is conservative. Losses of potassium at 10%.

A production cycle of 140 days per flock was used for estimating manure production and quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus for turkeys. The values for total A.U.s for turkeys listed in appendix table 22 (page 78) were divided by a factor of 2.6 for making the manure, nitrogen, and phosphorus estimates.

Tables

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