Information about the condition of the land and related natural resources is needed at many different scales to inform decision makers. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) gathers rangeland on-site data as part of the National Resources Inventory (NRI). This report focuses on information derived from NRI rangeland data collected on-site 2003 to 2006. The findings reported here focus on key issues in rangeland science, including rangeland health, non-native plant species, non-native and native invasive plant species, bare ground, intercanopy gaps and soil surface aggregate stability. Future reports will provide more detailed results based on more recent data at a finer scale. The report Introduction provides a summary of the NRI Rangeland Resource Assessment findings.