Prefers saturated soil. Species tolerates periodic inundation of 0-12 inches
early in the season for short durations. During growing season, this species
will tolerate constant inundation for less than 30 days.
Berries are eaten by many songbirds and ruffed grouse. Deer and rabbits
browse twigs and buds. Thickets provide cover and nesting habitat. Provides
excellent warbler habitat. Also provides food for raccoon, woodchuck, and
Used in upper shoreline zones, for streambank stabilization, and upland slope
Availability, Establishment, and Maintenance
Excellent seedling establishment. Very easy to propagate.
Widely available as bare root or balled and burlapped.
Can root from cuttings.
Spreads by stolons. Fast growth rate, more than 2 feet per year.