Prefers saturated soil to inundation 16.5 inches deep. Species tolerates
seasonally flooded conditions. Also has more than 50% mortality in water depths
of more than 20 inches.
Serves as an important source of wildlife food. Achenes are eaten by waterfowl
such as, pintail, lesser scaup, gadwall, canvasback, ringneck duck, rails, and
shorebirds. Muskrats eat stems and rhizomes. Stems provide habitat for ducks and
Used in lower shoreline zones, for streambank stabilization, and in vegetated
swales. Resists wave action and water level changes.
Availability, Establishment, and Maintenance
Achenes, tubers, rootstock, and rhizomes are available from several
Achenes have dormancy requirements. Fall collected achenes require cold
(34-36o F), wet stratification for 6-12 months and then warm temperatures
(75-80o F) to germinate. Fall seeding provides better germination than spring
due to the stratifying effects of overwintering. Seeds germinate better with
light and alternating temperatures.
Rhizomes have good survival when planted in spring through summer. They are
planted in saturated substrate at depths of 2-5 inches and on 2-6 foot centers
because of their rapidly spreading growth habit.
Young, newly established plants should not be totally flooded with water.
Manipulation of water levels with drawdowns and flooding are recommended for
best establishment results.
This species is also sensitive to oxygen depletion.