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Butterfly Nectar Sources Non-Native, Perennial Garden Plants Rich in Nectar

None of the plants listed below are native to Connecticut. Some appear on lists of native plants for Connecticut because they are native elsewhere in the USA and will grow in Connecticut gardens. Some of the plants grow wild in Connecticut because they are naturalized (originating in another country or another region of the USA, but once introduced to Connecticut, they are able to reproduce and spread). All the plants listed will grow in Connecticut and have been reported to attract butterflies. Note that individual butterfly tastes vary and the flower quality varies regionally, so some species may not be as attractive as expected to your butterflies. In general, plantings with large masses or drifts of the same color are more attractive to butterflies than mixes with a variety of colors in single plants or small clumps. Dead-heading the plants will give longer bloom time. Showy cultivars for many of the species listed below may enhance the appearance of your garden or the length of bloom time. Cultivars have part of their name in single quotes. Use caution with cultivars that have double flowers because often they lack fragrance or other signals to pollinators or they even may be missing the nectar or pollen. For the plants where only a genus is listed, you may wish to consult your local nursery operator as to which species grow best and are most attractive to butterflies in your area. Finally, avoid meadow mixes as they may contain species that are invasive in Connecticut (for example, Dame's Rocket).

Common Name Scientific Name Bloom
Asters Aster spp. (some species get ragged) Fall
Bee-balm (= Oswego Tea) Monarda didyma (spreads rapidly) Summer
Black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia
R. hirta var. pulcherrima (= R. serotina)
R. nitida 'Autumn Sun'

Summer/Fall
mid-Summer/Fall
Blazing Star Liatris spp.
L. spicata
L. pycnostachya

late Summer
late Summer
Boltonia (= False Starwort) Boltonia asteroides Fall
Candytuft, Edging Iberis sempervirens late Spring
Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum spp. (short, late season) Fall
Coneflowers
  Narrow-leaf Purple Coneflower
  Purple Coneflower
  Showy Coneflower
  Sullivant's Coneflower

Echinacea angustifolia
Echinacea purpurea
Rudbeckia fulgida var. speciosa
Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii (= Rudbeckia 'Goldstrum')

Fall
Fall
Fall
Fall
Coreopsis (= Tickseed); e.g.,
  Lance-leaved Tickseed
  Large-flowered Tickseed
  Tall Coreopsis
  Whorled Coreopsis
Coreopsis spp.
C. lanceolata (try "Sternthaler")
C. grandiflora
C. tripteris
C. verticillata (try "Moonbeam")

Spring
Summer
mid-Summer-late Fall
Summer - Fall
English Lavender
(subject to winter kill in poor drainage)
Lavandula angustifolia (try 'Hidcote' or 'Munstead' ) early Sum/early Fall
Grape Hyacinths Muscari spp. Early Spring
Lupine Lupinus spp. Summer
Oriental Lily hybrids Lilium X rubrum late Summer
Oriental Poppy Papaver orientale early Summer
Phlox e.g.,
Creeping Phlox
Garden (= Summer) Phlox
Wild Blue (= Woodland) Phlox
Phlox
P. stolonifera
P. paniculata
P. divaricata
Spring
Summer - Fall
Spring/early summer
Salvia Salvia spp. e.g., Salvia nemorosa "May Night" late Spring
Scabiosa (=Dove Pincushion)
(will bloom all summer if deadheaded)
Scabiosa columbaria (try "Butterfly Blue") Summer
Snapdragon Antirrhinum majus Spring - Fall
Stoke's Aster (poor drainage in winter will kill) Stokesia laevis late Spring - Fall
Stonecrop (= Live Forever) Sedum spp. (try Sedum purpureum "Autumn Joy") late Summer - Fall
Sweet William Dianthus barbatus late Spring/early Summer
Thrift, Sea (= Common Thrift) Armeria maritima Spring
Yarrow Achillea millefolium Summer - early Fall

Notes: The greatest number of butterfly species occurs in Connecticut in the Summer when, in addition to nectar plants found in gardens, there are many native plants blooming in the wild. Some butterflies may find plenty of nectar without ever coming to a butterfly garden. Certain butterfly species need nectar in the Spring and gardeners can be particularly helpful by providing spring nectar sources. Lilac (Syringa spp.) is a good shrub (or small tree) source of Spring nectar. Many perennial plants will bloom longer if the spent blossoms are removed (deadheading). However, when Fall comes, it is good for wildlife to leave the flowers to go to seed (which also provides shelter for some over-wintering butterflies).