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USGS Report - 158th AWRBIAC

U.S. Geological Survey
Water Resources Discipline, Central Region, Denver, Colorado

158th Committee Meeting
Oct. 28-30, 2008
Catoosa, Okla.

As part of its national mission the United States Geological Survey (USGS) operates data-collection networks for the purpose of monitoring the water resources of the United States.  Within the Arkansas, White, and Red River Basins the surface-water sites include about 450 continuous-recording streamflow gages and more than 300 surface-water quality sampling sites, some of which are equipped with continuous monitors.  In addition, a variety of other sites, such as partial-record stations and precipitation stations, are also operated.  The data collected from these networks are published annually and can be obtained from individual USGS District offices as soon as the data are reviewed.  Most stations are equipped with data-collection platforms and provide "real-time data" through satellite transmission.  In addition, the USGS conducts water-resource investigations that are published periodically.

Arkansas Water Science Center

The Arkansas Water Science Center operates 116 continuous-record streamflow gages, 17 partial-record gages, 8 stage-only gages, 51 rainfall gages, 62 surface-water quality stations (11 of which have continuous real-time recorders), and 1 NASQAN site in the Arkansas, White, and Red River Basins. Ground-water levels are being measured in about 500 wells. Twenty-one wells are real-time sites and ten wells are continuous recorder sites. Approximately 65 wells are sampled for water-quality determinations.  An annual data report is published.  Ground-water data and potentiometric-surface reports also are published annually.  These data are collected as a part of the USGS’ Collection of Basic Records program; ongoing cooperative work with local State and Federal agencies; and in support of the Arkansas River Compact Commission, the Red River Compact Commission, the Union County Water Conservation Board, the Union County Conservation District, and the National Park Service.

Water-quality data are currently being collected at 14 stream sites and 9 lake sites in the White River Basin, including 8 sites that monitor continuous real-time water temperature and dissolved oxygen data.  Water-quality data have been collected and a full water-quality model for Beaver Lake has been developed and calibrated.  The calibrated model was applied to evaluate how various nutrient and sediment loading scenarios into Beaver Lake effect the reservoir water quality.  Additionally, a realtime Lake Diagnostic Station (LDS) has been installed on Beaver Lake, which monitors real-time weather (wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, air temperature, solar radiation) and real-time dissolved oxygen and water temperature from the surface to the bottom of the reservoir.  The LDS is being used to drive a near realtime water-quality model of reservoir that will be displayed on the USGS website.

Water-quality data are currently being collected at 8 stream sites and 3 lake sites in the Red River Basin, including a site that monitors continuous real-time water-quality (pH, conductivity, temperature, turbidity and dissolved oxygen).  A report has been completed that describes the water quality and streamflow characterisitics of the Middle Fork of the Saline River basin for 2003 through 2006. 

Water-quality data are currently being collected at 20 stream sites and 8 lake sites in the Arkansas River Basin, including two sites that monitor continuous real-time water-quality (pH, conductivity, temperature, turbidity and dissolved oxygen).  A report has been completed that describes the inorganic and organic composition of water-samples from 4 sites on the Illinois River from 2005 through 2007 to characterize thesources of turbidity in the stream.

Several interpretive hydrologic investigations are being conducted in Arkansas.  A study to establish a set of regionalized equations to predict the 2- year and 7-year low-flow for streams in Arkansas was complete and published (available on-line at: http://ar.water.usgs.gov/data-bin/publications

Six USGS Water Resources Investigations Reports documenting results from six separate ground-w ater flow and optimization models were released at 3 separate press conferences. The reports documented past and future hydrologic conditions in the Sparta and alluvial aquifers, as well as sustainable-yield estimates from ground and surface water.  The alluvial aquifer, which is in hydraulic connection with the lower White and Arkansas Rivers, is an important source of agricultural and irrigation water.  The Sparta is a primary source of water for industrial and municipal use.  Both aquifers have been over pumped and are experiencing massive cones of depression in some areas. 

As a follow up to published ground-water modeling analyses of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, the USGS performed additional conjunctive-use optimization modeling to assess the impact of varying planned withdrawals from the White and Arkansas Rivers as part of the Grand Prairie and Bayou Meto Irrigation Projects. The alluvial aquifer, which is in hydraulic connection with the lower White and Arkansas Rivers, is an important source of agricultural and irrigation water.   If planned deliveries of water from the Arkansas and White Rivers are set to zero, and potential additional withdrawals from other rivers specified within the model are removed, then the long-term sustainable yield from ground water produced from the alluvial aquifer increases.  An additional analysis of potential ground-water withdrawals from a site near Pine Bluff, AR adjacent to the Arkansas River showed that about 39 million gallons per day could be produced sustainably, which is more than the amount of water being pumped from the Sparta aquifer by a large paper mill in the area.

Model simulations of the impact of proposed pumping from wells owned by municipalities in Lonoke County were developed by the USGS. The purpose of the models was to assess future impacts of pumping to water levels in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer out to the end of the year 2049.  Water level changes were assessed in a multicounty area surrounding the area of proposed pumping.  Changes in the number of dry cells in the model area after 46 years of pumping were also assessed.

A proposal to study the feasibilty of artificial recharge of the alluvial aquifer using constructed wetlands in conjunction with specially constructed trenches, recharge galleries, and wells was developed in conjunction with staff from Arkansas State University. Potential study site locations are near Weiner, AR and at the UAPB Experimental Farm near Lonoke, AR.  The proposal was provided to Ducks Unlimited for consideration.

A report documenting various analyses with the conjunctive-use optimization model of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, prepared in conjunction with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission, was published as USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5138.  The additional analyses included (1) assessment of sustainable yield and ground-water pumping distributions from reductions in the maximum allowable pumping rates at individual wells in the model; (2) an assessment of the maximum sustainable annual average withdrawal rate in the White River at Devalls Bluff, the withdrawal point for the Grand Prairie Area Demonstration Project; and (3) an assessment of impacts in potential river stage change in the White River should  water from the White River breach the Melinda structure, resulting in lower river stage in the White River as it joins hypothetically with the Arkansas River.

Validation of a ground-water flow model of the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer was performed using water-level and water-use data for the period 1998-2005. Fit of observed to simulated water-level altitudes for that period yielded a sum of squared errors of 0.964.

The Ozark Plateaus National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, headquartered in Arkansas, includes portions of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma.  Numerous technical reports and fact sheets on ground- and surface-water quality and aquatic ecology have been published since the study began in 1991.  During the low intensity phase of the Ozark Plateaus NAWQA program, periodic sampling for nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, fecal-indicator bacteria, sulfate, and chloride, and fish, macroinvertebrate, and periphyton communities occurred at two to three surface-water sites in the White River Basin.  Six wells in the Springfield Plateau aquifer in southern Missouri, northern Arkansas, and eastern Oklahoma were sampled for a similar list of constituents in the springs of 2002 and 2005.  A reconnaissance of more than 60 sites in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma took place in the summer of 2005.  Thirty of these sites spanning a range of nutrient concentrations in forested and agricultural settings in the White River, Arkansas River, and Missouri River Basins were sampled during the summer of 2006.  Samples were collected for analysis of nutrients and suspended sediment, periphyton communities, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and fish communities. Seven of these sites were sampled seasonally for nutrients, suspended sediment, periphyton, and macroinvertebrates during 2007. Data collected in 2006 - 2008 will be analyzed in 2009.

Colorado Water Science Center

The Colorado Water Science Center currently operates 69 recording streamflow gages and 3 gages on reservoirs within the Arkansas River Basin. Continuous recording water-quality monitors are operated at 15 sites. Periodic water-quality data are collected at 39 surface-water sites, 6 sites in Pueblo reservoir, and 160 wells. Suspended-sediment data are collected at 31 sites. Water-level measurements are made annually or more frequently in about 560 wells.

The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study

The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study started in October 1998.  Studies conducted during the first 2 years of intensive data collection were located in Kansas, Oklahoma, and the Texas Panhandle north of Amarillo.  These studies included a broad-scale assessment of water quality in the Ogallala Formation and the Quaternary deposits; an investigation of the quality of recently recharged ground water under irrigated fields in the Ogallala Formation and under recent commercial and residential development in alluvial deposits in Wichita, Kansas; a water-quality comparison study, in which 15 public-supply wells were sampled and compared against 15 nearby domestic wells; a transect study within the Ogallala Formation along the Kansas/Oklahoma state line to examine vertical gradients in ground-water chemistry and age; and unsaturated-zone studies to measure recharge rates and chemical fluxes to the water table under irrigated fields.  Studies conducted during the third year of intensive data collection were located in the Texas Panhandle south of Amarillo.  These studies included a broad-scale assessment of ground-water quality in the Ogallala Formation; a transect study within the Ogallala Formation to examine vertical gradients in ground-water chemistry and age; and unsaturated-zone studies to measure recharge rates and chemical fluxes to the water table under irrigated fields. During the fourth year, efforts were split between an irrigated agricultural (cotton) Land Use Study in the southern High Plains and several ground-water quality studies in the northern High Plains. The northern High Plains studies include a broad-scale assessment of the Ogallala Formation in which approximately 50 domestic-supply wells were sampled during this initial effort; a transect study that began with the installation of multiple-completion wells at four sites along a hypothetical flowline, and unsaturated-zone studies to measure recharge rates and chemical fluxes to the water table under rangeland and irrigated fields. The work in the northern High Plains is designed to complement similar work that has taken place in the central and southern High Plains.

Kansas Water Science Center

The Kansas Water Science Center currently operates 64 continuous-record stream gages, 10 stage only gages, 1 lake gage, 12 crest-stage gages, and 7 continuous-record ground-water level recorders in the Arkansas River Basin.  Periodic water levels are collected at 115 wells in the Arkansas River Basin near Wichita. Water-quality samples are collected at 4 of the streamflow stations, 7 continuous-record ground-water wells, and 115 short-term project stations.  Continuous-record water quality are logged and transmitted real-time from 8 surface-water stations, 2 ground water sites, and 1 lake site.  All continuous-record surface-water and ground-water stations are equipped with DCP's and many of the streamflow stations have rain gages installed.  Support for these data collection is provided by USGS, State agencies, other Federal agencies, various local governments, and the Arkansas River Compact Administration.

A USGS real-time water quality notification system has been developed in Kansas.  Eight of the 40 sites in Kansas are located in the Arkansas River Basin and include 3 sites in the Neosho Basin above and below John Redmond reservoir. The two inflow and outflow sites for John Redmond are operated to describe the sediment loading into and out of the reservoir.  A report was recently published describing sediment flux into and out of John Redmond (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5123/). Information provided by this system can be used to improve drinking water treatment and to monitor the environment.  The real-time water quality information includes hourly sensor measurements of streamflow, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll.  Statistical models are then applied to the hourly values and concentrations of other water quality chemicals can be estimated, such as fecal coliform bacteria.  The hourly values and information on the real-time water-quality notification system are available on the Internet at http://ks.water.usgs.gov/Kansas/rtqw/

The Kansas Water Science Center is continuing work on a cooperative study with the city of Wichita to collect and interpret water quantity and quality data for the Equus Beds Ground-Water Recharge Demonstration Project in south-central Kansas.  The objective of this endeavor is to collect and interpret the data necessary to evaluate two ground-water recharge and recovery techniques, including the impacts on water quality, design criteria, and problems associated with infiltration of streamflow.  The artificial recharge project began operating in March 2007 with full-scale prototype facilities consisting of a surface-water treatment and a series of wells that are capable of recharging 10 million gallons of water per day. From March 2007 through August 2008, 630 million gallons of water have been recharged.

The USGS Kansas Water Science Center is continuing work on a cooperative study with the City of Wichita on water quality in Cheney Reservoir and the surrounding watershed.  Cheney Reservoir serves and both a drinking water supply and a recreational resource for the City of Wichita.  The primary objectives of this study are to:  1) continue quantification of watershed contributions of nutrients, sediment, total dissolved solids, and herbicides to Cheney Reservoir, 2) link watershed inputs with reservoir water quality, and 3) determine relations between reservoir water quality, algal community structure and dynamics, and cyanobacterial production of taste-and-odor compounds and toxins.  In addition to standard real-time water-quality monitors nitrate and blue-green algae monitors also are being utilized for this project.  The city is using the results from a model for a taste and odor compound (geosmin) to adjust water treatment for drinking water.

Historic lead and zinc mining in the tri-state area of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma has left a legacy of contaminated streams and surface-water impoundments. An assessment of this contamination was begun in 2004 as a cooperative study between the USGS Kansas Water Science Center, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Kansas Department of Health and Environment. The initial phase of the study evaluated trace element concentrations in streambed sediment at 87 locations in the Kansas part of the tri-state area (a superfund site established in 1983). Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in streambed sediment were as large as two orders of magnitude greater than sediment-quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. The second phase of the assessment was completed in 2007 and described the historic accumulation of trace elements in the bottom sediment of Empire Lake, the largest surface-water impoundment in the study area.

In 2005, the USGS Kansas Water Science Center and Kansas Water Office began a cooperative study to evaluate ground-water availability and quality in the Ozark and Springfield aquifers of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma. A regional ground-water flow model will be developed to simulate the effects of existing and proposed municipal and industrial ground-water withdrawal rates on ground-water levels. Pumping stress also may induce changes in water quality. Results of this study will help water managers assess the availability of ground water in their areas, to determine the effects of pumping on groundwater levels, and to assess the potential for possible future contamination of wells.

Louisiana Water Science Center

The Louisiana Water Science Center operates 68 surface-water gages (18 continuous discharge gages, 30 continuous stage gages, 13 crest-stage gages, and 7 flood-profile gages) in the Red River Basin.  As part of the Louisiana real-time monitoring network, 44 of the continuous gages have Data Collection Platforms (DCP’s) and 28 sites have rain gages.  Included in the real-time network are 17 stage-rain gages in the Caddo-Bossier Parish area near Shreveport, Louisiana.  The Louisiana District operates a statewide ground-water-level and quality network of which 71 water-level sites and 20 water-quality sites are located in the Red River Basin.

Missouri Water Science Center

The Missouri Water Science Center currently operates 42 continuous-record streamflow gages, 5 stage-only gages, 6 crest-stage gages, and 23 rain gages in the White and Arkansas River Basins.  Water-quality data are collected at 42 sites in the White and Arkansas River Basins.  These data collection efforts are done in cooperation with local, state, and other federal government agencies. Elk River has been selected by NAWQA to be this year's status and trends site requiring additional water quality samples to be collected.  The center has one investigative study in the Missouri part of the basin, a ground-water model in the Springfield, Missouri area.

Greene County Ground Water Model

Greene County ground-water model -In October 2006, the USGS began a ground-water modeling study of Greene County, Missouri. The model will include the surficial and deeper aquifer in the region and stream and spring flows. The study is being conducted in cooperation with the Greene County Resource Management District and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Little Rock District.  A potentiometric surface map of the Ozark aquifer was published in 2007 (SIM 3003 - Potentiometric Surface of the Ozark Aquifer near Springfield, Missouri, 2006–07). Currently, (2008), the model is being calibrated to the transient conditions and predictive simulations are being evaluated.

New Mexico Water Science Center

The New Mexico Water Science Center, within the Arkansas River Basin, operates 14 continuous-record streamflow gages, 6 seasonal-record streamflow gages, 4 lake or reservoir gages, and 4 water-quality sampling sites.  In addition, data was collected at 15 crest-stage partial record sites.  Ground-water data are collected annually at 28 wells, semi-annually at 66 wells, and at 5-year intervals at about 280 wells. During the year 5 stream flow and 2 lake elevation sites were upgraded to high baud rate transmitters, providing hourly “real time” data.

Currently, there are no interpretive studies within the Arkansas or Red River basins.

Oklahoma Water Science Center

The Oklahoma Water Science Center is located within the Arkansas and Red River Basins and collects surface-water and discharge data from 149 continuous recording stream gages, 22 lake and reservoir gages, and 32 other surface-water sites.  Surface-water-quality data are collected at 25 continuous monitoring sites and 31 miscellaneous sites.  Event-flow water-quality samples are collected at 19 surface-water stations in five separate basins.  Ground-water levels are measured at 4 continuous sites and annually at 250 wells.  One surface-water and one ground-water sites were added this year.

Significant flooding occurred over all of Oklahoma.  Over 160 high flow measurements were made between March and August of 2007.   The significance of this year’s event for each state can be seen on the USGS Web page for respective states at: http://water.usgs.gov/cgi-bin/wwdp

Norman Landfill Research Site

A continuing study within the Norman Landfill Research Site is a study of a small wetland that overlies the leachate plume.  Many closed landfills are located on alluvial deposits near rivers and a large number of those landfills are near wetlands.  Research at other sites has shown that wetlands may be able to reduce contaminant concentrations.  The wetland at Norman Landfill overlies the leachate plume, and leachate-contaminated ground water interacts with the wetland.  We are studying the exchange of water between the wetland and the leachate-contaminated ground water to determine if the wetland reduces the contaminant concentrations.

The continuing study in cooperation with the Oklahoma Department of Transportation will develop an internet-based web-based application (StreamStats) for Oklahoma.  It will:

  • Automatically measure basin and climatic characteristics for ungaged sites using GIS;
  • Provide published streamflow statistics, basin and climatic characteristics, and other information for data-collection stations contained in published streamflow statistsics reports.
  • Provide estimates of flood-frequency statistics, basin and climatic characteristics, and other information for user-selected points on ungaged streams; and
  • Link to USGS NWIS on line data.
Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research Project

The USGS, Oklahoma Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Osage Tribe, Department of Energy, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is investigating the effects of hydrocarbons and produced water (brines) on soil and ground and surface water (Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research Project).  These findings will help mitigate effects of those products at similar sites throughout the nation.

Production Well-Head Arsenic Remediation in Western Cleveland County, Oklahoma

The study for Production Well-Head Arsenic Remediation in Western Cleveland County, Oklahoma, continues in cooperation with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Oklahoma State University (OSU), the City of Norman and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).  This is a 5-year research program investigating the source, transport, and chemistry of naturally-occurring arsenic in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) Aquifer. The information generated from this research may help local municipalities remediate public-supply wells, as well as site future production wells in areas where arsenic poses no risk. The project field work has been completed in late 2005 and the report is currently being published by the Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6.

Characterization of the Ada-Vamoosa Aquifer on the Osage Reservation

The Characterization of the Ada-Vamoosa Aquifer on the Osage Reservation study is to characterize areas of maximum potential well yield in the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer in the Osage Reservation. The USGS using existing hydrologic data from wells in the aquifer and performing aquifer recovery tests on selected wells will construct a map of the potential well yield based on specific capacity and hydraulic conductivity.

Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer

The Oklahoma Water Science Center continues working with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, Oklahoma State University, the University of Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Ground-Water Risk Management Laboratory, Ada, OK, in an investigation of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in southern Oklahoma. The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer study is funded by the Bureau of Reclamation and the State of Oklahoma. The USGS is constructing a ground-water flow model to test water management options for the aquifer. Two sessions about the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer are scheduled for the 2007 Governor’s Water Conference is being held October 28-30 in Midwest City. The study has been completed and the model of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer is being presented displaying the suggested future scenarios of water withdrawals.

Nutrient Constituent Loading in the Fort Cobb Reservoir Drainage Basin

The USGS, Oklahoma Water Science Center in cooperation with the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Grazing Lands Research Lab has begun studying Nutrient Constituent Loading in the Fort Cobb Reservoir Drainage Basin.  The purpose is to monitor inflow to Fort Cobb Lake, land use changes, and nutrient and sediment loading of major tributaries under the National Resources Conservation Service Conservation Environmental Assessment Project.  This will quantify varying changes in conservation practices and stream-flow chemical loading.  A digital atlas is currently being compiled for the Fort Cobb Reservoir Basin that will include; biological, water, chemical, land use, etc.  The information will be in cooperation with the ARS and other agencies.  A joint report featuring these data and work contributed by USDA, Agriculture Research Service, El Reno, authors is scheduled for publication, mid 2009.

Duration Streamflow Statistics Web Application

The Duration Streamflow Statistics Web Application study in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water resources Board, will use streamflow statistics at gaged-streamflow sites to produce estimating equations that relate 95-, 90- 80-, 50-, and 20-percent exceedances of annual, monthly, and seasonal daily mean streamflow to basin characteristics. In addition mean annual streamflow will be estimated.

These estimating equations will be incorporated in an Oklahoma Streamflow Statistics Web Application for ease of use.

Trends in Base and Total Flows of Selected Streams within Oklahoma through 2007

The Trends in Base and Total Flows of Selected Streams within Oklahoma through 2007 study in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water resources Board, will:

  • analyze and interpret statistical trends, annual (water year) and seasonal (Nov-May and Jun-Oct), at selected long-term streamflow-gaging stations through water year 2007 for total flow volume, base flow volume, and Base Flow Index (ratio base flow/total flow);
  • analyze and interpret statistical trends for annual (water year) peak flow at selected long-term streamflow-gaging stations through water year 2007;
  • document number of days and percent of time at selected long-term streamflow-gaging stations through water year 2007 for the following flow conditions: zero flows, and less than 1.0 cubic feet per second;
  • analyze and interpret statistical trends for annual (water year) and seasonal (Nov-May and Jun-Oct) precipitation through water year 2007 for statewide totals and
    Climate Division totals (regional).
Statistical Summaries of Regulated and Unregulated Streamflow in Oklahoma through 2007

The Statistical Summaries of Regulated and Unregulated Streamflow in Oklahoma through 2007 study in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water resources Board, will describe streamflow characteristics for Oklahoma through 2007.

  • Determine the maximum, miminum, and median flow and percent of annual flow for both annual and monthly means, annual low-flow frequency statistics, and flow-duration statistics for each gaging station in both unregulated and regulated periods of record.
  • Determine the seasonal low-flow frequency statistics for each gaging station in both unregulated and regulated periods of record for three regulatory seasons.
  • Determine the peak-flow statistics for each gaging station in both unregulated and regulated periods of record.
  • Incorporate streamflow statistics at gage locations into the USGS Web StreamStats Application and make it available for access on the internet.
Oklahoma Hydrologic Integrity Assessment Process

The Oklahoma Hydrologic Integrity Assessment Process (OKHIP): Baseline Period of Record Determination study is a tool developed by the US Geological Survey that identifies 10 non-redundant hydrologic indices that are ecologically relevant, specific to classes of streams in localized regions, and characterize multiple components of the natural flow regime (timing, magnitude, duration, frequency, and rate of change). These indices can be used by water resources managers to develop permitting practices that take into account changes to flow that might affect aquatic ecosystem health.

USGS Oklahoma Water Science Center is working with Oklahoma Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OFWRU) on developing the HIP for Oklahoma by providing OFWRU streamflow data from gages with long-term daily record. Identification of these 10 indices requires streamflow data from gages that are relatively unaffected by anthropogenic activities such as regulation, diversion, withdrawal, and urban development. The objective of the Baseline Period of Record Assessment is to provide streamflow data from a time period which is considered "least altered" by anthropogenic activities.

Drought of Water Year 2006 study

he Drought of Water Year 2006 study in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, has prepared a Scientific Investigations Report that evaluates the impact of the Water Year 2006 hydrologic drought in comparison to four major hydrologic drought periods in the 20th century. The data for the report was obtained from several long term streamflow gaging stations located throughout the state. Statewide runoff and precipitation data, regional precipitation data, and reservoir storage data is also presented.

The report has been approved and will be published soon.

Estimation of Nutrient Loads in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin

Estimation of Nutrient Loads in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin, Northeastern Oklahoma, 2002-2006 study in cooperation with the City of Tulsa, has compiled total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentration data for calendar years 2002-2006 at five sites in above Lake Eucha in the Eucha-Spavinaw basin to:

  • Provide summary statistics of total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations;
  • Determine base-flow and runoff days;
  • Use LOADEST multi-parameter regression program to estimate daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads for the 3-yr periods 2002-2004, 2003-2005, 2004-2006 and then calculate:

o       total, base-flow, and runoff mean annual constituent loads;

o       total, base-flow, and runoff mean annual constituent yields;

o       total, base-flow, and runoff seasonal constituent loads; and

o       mean flow-weighted concentrations.

The report has been approved and will be published soon.

Continuous-Water Quality Monitoring in the Spavinaw-Eucha River Basin

Continuous-Water Quality Monitoring in the Spavinaw-Eucha River Basin, Northeastern, OK study in cooperation with the City of Tulsa, in order to enhance the current water-quality monitoring efforts in the Eucha-Spavinaw watershed has implemented real-time 5-parameter (pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, water temperature, and turbidity) continuous water-quality monitors at 2 existing continuous streamflow gaging stations -- Spavinaw Creek near Colcord, Oklahoma (USGS station number 071912213) and Beaty Creek near Jay, Oklahoma (USGS station number 07191222).

Surrogate relationships between the continuous water-quality monitor field readings and collected samples have been developed. The report will be published soon.

Texas Water Science Center

The Texas Water Science Center operates 38 continuous record streamflow stations, 1 flood-hydrograph partial-record station, 1 base flow partial-record station, 19 continuous record stage reservoir stations, and 2 continuous record stage and contents reservoir stations. Five of the continuous record stations are in the Canadian River Basin (subbasin of the Arkansas River Basin), 3 in the Trinity River Basin, and 4 in the Brazos River Basin.  Periodic chemical-quality data are available for one station located in the Red River Basin, Wichita River at Loop 11 at Wichita Falls, and one site, Canadian River near Amarillo, in the Arkansas River Basin. Continuous record temperature and conductivity data are available for 14 stations located in the Red River Basin and one site, Canadian River near Amarillo, in the Arkansas River Basin. Many of the water quality and streamflow sites are associated with the Chloride Control Project, Corps of Engineers, Tulsa.
TXDOT Crest-Stage Gage Project
The TXDOT Crest-Stage Gage Project was started in 2006.  The North Texas Program office operates 19 crest-stage gage sites, of which 5 are in the Arkansas River Basin, 7 are in the Red River Basin, and 7 are in the Brazos River Basin.
Arsenic Study of Lake Arrowhead
The Arsenic Study of Lake Arrowhead was completed and published (Wilson, J.T., Musgrove, MaryLynn, Haynie, M.M., and Van Metre, P.C., 2008, Physicochemical and analytical data for tributary water, lake water, and lake sediment, Lake Arrowhead, Clay and Archer Counties, Texas, 2006: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 334, 13 p., 2 appendixes—online only). Arsenic is a drinking water concern for public water supply entities. The study began in 2006 on Lake Arrowhead and included monthly water quality sampling of the reservoir, beginning in January and ending in September. Several lake sediment cores were collected during late summer. The sediment cores were sampled at intervals approximating the sedimentation rate and analyzed for arsenic and selected trace metals. Chemical analysis of the sediment cores will help define water-quality trends in the reservoir. Streamflow water quality samples were also collected from tributaries to help identify sources of arsenic during high flow and low flow conditions.
Streamflow quantity and water quality (bromide concentrations, bromide loads, and salinity) of the Red River from Lake Texoma to the Arkansas border
A study began in Feb. 2007 to determine streamflow quantity and water quality (bromide concentrations, bromide loads, and salinity) of the Red River from Lake Texoma to the Arkansas border at selected locations will be completed in Feb. 2009. Water-quality samples are collected during high-flow and low-flow events in order to cover all ranges of streamflow experienced during the studies 2 year period. High-flow sampling is very important in determining loads because the majority of loads, for many constituents, are transported during high-flow events. This approach utilizes a network of stream gages, continuous water-quality monitors, and periodic discrete sampling. Sample analysis will consist of bromide and common anions/cations. Bromide concentrations were also determined for Lake Texoma temporally and spatially through surveys at eleven sites in the lake during six separate surveys with the last survey Sept. 2008. Bromide concentrations were determined from discrete samples in the water column selected on attendant observations of dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and temperature. Two separate reports to present the findings of the study are planned for the 2009 water year.